Organic Chemistry Day 1 Notes
Organic Chemistry Day 1 Notes CHM211
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katelyn Notetaker on Wednesday August 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHM211 at Elon University taught by Kathryn Matera in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Organic Chemistry in Chemistry at Elon University.
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Date Created: 08/31/16
Katey Helwick Organic Chemistry, Matera 8/30/16 Organic Chemistry Pre-Class Notes (Sections 1.1-1.3) 1.1- What is Organic Chemistry? **An organic compound is composed primarily of carbon and hydrogen (imperfect definition) 1.2- Why Carbon? Reasons why the chemistry of life is centered primarily around the carbon atom: o Diversity- Carbon is cable of forming 4 covalent bonds to other atoms o Carbon atoms can link together in chains of almost any length o Branching at each carbon in the chain o Capability of forming double and triple bonds o Stability- Carbon forms very strong bonds with other atoms & carbon atoms Oxygen: o Most stable when forming 2 covalent bonds (means they can only form a linear chain) o No branching o – O – O – O –O – Does not allow for double or triple bonds 1.3- Atomic Structure and Ground State Electron Configurations a. The Structure of the Atom: Center positively charged nucleus (protons & neutrons) Surrounding the nucleus cloud of negatively charged electrons o Electrons attracted to the nucleus by electrostatic forces Individual electrons are very small (smaller than the nucleus) Electron cloud is larger than the nucleus (majority of the electron cloud is empty space) Mass of the atom = mass of nucleus An atom has no net charge Charged Ions: o Anion = negatively charged (more electrons than protons) o Cation = positively charged (lack of electrons) b. Atomic Orbitals and Shells: Electrons in an isolated atom reside in atomic orbitals Shapes of orbitals: o S orbital sphere o P orbital “dumbbell” Shells (or energy levels (n)): o 1 shell n = 1 (1s _) nd o 2 rdshell n = 2 (2s _, 2p _ _ _ ) o 3 shell n = 3 (3s _, 3p _ _ _, 3d _ _ _ _ _ ) * Up to 2 electrons in an orbital o 2 electrons = duet (1 shell) nd o 8 erdctrons = octet (2 shell) o 3 shell can contain up to 18 electrons Increasing shell # = Increasing size and energy of the atomic orbital c. Ground State Electron Configurations: Valence Electrons and Core Electrons: Electron Configuration- Arrangement of electrons in atomic orbitals Ground State- most stable (lowest energy) electron configuration Periodic Table: o # of valence electrons = group # of that element Stability increases when filling valence shells
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