The Columbian Exchange and the First British Colonies
The Columbian Exchange and the First British Colonies 1063
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Imelda Williams on Wednesday August 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1063 at Mississippi State University taught by Professer Hersey in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 214 views. For similar materials see Early U.S. History in History at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 08/31/16
Week of August 29 : The Columbian Exchange and the First British Colonies 1063 Online Reader documents 16, 21, and 22 Monday August 29 Lecture Notes America’s First Revolution Key Question: What was the Columbian Exchange and how did it facilitate European colonization? Demographic and environmental revolution Europeans came looking for treasures and had a vision of a utopian society that they felt Native Americans were in the way of. Iroquois Confederacy of 5 nations – Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, and the Senecas – prior to colonization Practiced cannibalism They gathered in the spring, living in long houses in western New York. They separated in the winter to preserve food They were more mobile than the Mississippian Indians, and they didn’t accumulate many material things because of this. Usufruct facts – the right to use particular things at particular times The Iroquois didn’t know how to work with iron, and they didn’t have wheels so there were no pulleys. Their economy created a patchwork landscape Set fires to help hunting Sometimes over hunted By 1800, patchwork landscape would have been replaced by roads, fences, and brick building and permanent towns. There would have been soil erosion and deforestation Colonization was seen as a violent will by the Europeans to impose their religious beliefs on the Natives. Cultural Conflict between Europeans and the Iroquois Week of August 29 : The Columbian Exchange and the First British Colonies 1063 Online Reader documents 16, 21, and 22 Iroquois would sell Europeans the right to use land while Europeans thought they were actually purchasing the land to own it, not for temporary use. This is where the confusion between the two cultures lie. In the Iroquois culture, the men hunted and gathered and the women farmed. The Europeans saw the Iroquois men as lazy and not contributing, allowing women to do work that the men should be doing. The Iroquois society, the women held authority in their political system, but the Europeans assumed that men held all the authority so the Europeans started stripping the Iroquois women of their authority. The Europeans saw the resources in the New World as abundant commodities, whereas the Iroquois saw spirits among their resources. (animalism) The average British colonist had more access to firewood than the King of England. Ecological imperialism – interchangeable with the Columbian Exchange (the biological exchange between the Old and the New World) Some were deliberate introductions and some were accidental. All pathogens (diseases) were accidental The Columbian Exchange contributed to the population boom The “love apple” (tomato) was thought to be an aphrodisiac. The Natives referred to honey bees as English flies. Diseases Swept Throughout The New World Some of the Natives adopted livestock which contributed to the disease epidemic in the New World The death rate of the Natives was more than 90% all caused by disease The Natives did try to quarantine and protect themselves from the diseases but this was nearly impossible because of the Europeans taking over their land. Most of the Natives died from smallpox before they were even conquered The Natives’ geographic isolation is what made them so vulnerable to these European diseases that they had never encountered before. Week of August 29 : The Columbian Exchange and the First British Colonies 1063 Online Reader documents 16, 21, and 22 It was difficult for the Natives to keep their politics together and pass down their cultural beliefs because they didn’t write things down and diseases were killing them off very quickly. Smallpox vaccinations stopped being required in 1972 because people’s bodies had evolved to have an immune system already immune to the smallpox disease. Europeans saw the Native Americans dying off as God giving the Europeans the right to take Native American land. The commodities in the New World pushed Europeans closer and closer to capitalism. Vinland was the first European colony in the New World, established in 1000 B.C. by Scandinavian Vikings. It only lasted about 300 years It failed because of its inability to promote Vinland as a good place to live. The settlers didn’t get along with their neighbors either. There was economic competition that was beating them, and the biological exchange did not benefit them in any way. Their animals also went feral. Week of August 29 : The Columbian Exchange and the First British Colonies 1063 Online Reader documents 16, 21, and 22 Wednesday August 31 Lecture Notes The Establishment of the British Colonies Core Question: Why did British colonial affairs when they did and as they did? The British had been practicing colonial efforts for a long time, just not in North America. Ralph Lane was the first to attempt establishing a British colony. Spanish Colonization and the Reasons They Were Successful The Spanish were able to establish a permanent colony a century before the French and English. They Spanish were deliberate in purpose and moved quickly. They conquered the Aztecs in less than 30 years of inhabitance. Less than a decade later, the Incas were conquered as well. The gold the Spanish found gave them motive for returning to the New World. The epidemic of diseases that wiped out the Native American population was helpful to the Spanish, by killing off Native Americans for them. Spanish expeditions were funded by the state. The Spanish colonies were tightly governed, tightly organized, and heavily bureaucratic. There were no competing colonies from other countries to take wealth and discoveries from the Spanish. Every publication about the New World or in the New World was censored, and every colonial treasurer was audited. They had plenty of military force and allies whenever it came time to fight the Native Americans. They would also capture and enslave the Natives. There was no shortage of people to populate their colonies, and their influence spread quickly throughout the New World. The Spanish controlled trade ships called the Manila Galleon. Francisco Vazquez de Coronado and What We Learned From Him Coronado was a competent Spanish conquistador that failed to find gold in present day Kansas. From Coronado we learned 4 things: 1. Europeans pursued ideas over reality in colonial endeavors. Week of August 29 : The Columbian Exchange and the First British Colonies 1063 Online Reader documents 16, 21, and 22 2. Europeans were seeking wealth. 3. Europeans saw the New World as a land filled with an infinite amount of resources. 4. Europeans felt as though they were entitled to whatever they found. The British Colonies and Why They Unsuccessful in the Beginning In complete opposite of the Spanish colonies, British colonization had a muzzled purpose and moved very slowly. The process was so slow because also unlike the Spanish colonies, the British were not funded by the state. All of their money came from private investors. They were not successful early one. They struggled to make profits early on, and because there was no money, they were stranded for long periods of time. Jamestown was the first permanent British colony established in 1607. Also in contrast to the Spanish, the British colonies were selfgoverning, and their colonial leaders held real authority. This allowed them to create a loyalty to compete with their English identity. They had boosters, people to advocate and promote living in the New World positively to increase their funds from private investors. 5 years after Columbus sailed, John Cabot sailed and established fishing villages in 1497. Tudor Dynasty King Henry VIII was not interesting colonization in the New World, and made lots of enemies as king. After his death, he was succeeded by his only son Edward VI who was only 18 at the time of his reign. He was unhealthy, and died after only 6 years as king. Edward was succeeded by Mary, also known as Bloody Mary, for her violent tactics to reinforce the Catholic religion throughout England. Five years later, Mary was succeeded by Elizabeth I, who was Protestant and known as England’s greatest monarch. Week of August 29 : The Columbian Exchange and the First British Colonies 1063 Online Reader documents 16, 21, and 22 The British economy fell in 1551, when their most important products to the economy began to fail them. (wool) They began trading with Africans in 1555 and with East Indies in 1600. People began publishing books that encouraged colonization. Richard Harkluyt (the younger), Discourse on Western Planting British Attempts of Colonization Walter Raleigh, Thomas Harriet (scholar), and John White (artist) were all involved in the settlement of a colony in North Carolina. White provided the first English portraits of the New World. Some Native Americans were captured and taken back to England. Among these Indians included Manteo and Wanchese. They were servants for Queen Virginia, also known as the virgin queen because she was never married. In 1584, the first attempt to colonize in Roanoke. There were 100 men lead Richard Grenville and Ralph Lane. They expected to return to England very quickly but that did not happen. The land was swept with sickness and famine. The Natives blamed the diseases on the British so they refused to trade food with them. There was another attempt to colonize, but this included women and children. The Captain was supposed to take the settlers to Chesapeake Bay, but he dropped them off at Roanoke. John White returned to England. War broke out in Spain in1588, and it was 3 years before White was able to actually return to Roanoke. He found that all the houses were burned and the colony was deserted. On a tree was carved “Croatoan”, and no one knows what this word represents. Roanoke was a dismal failure. In 1590, White’s portraits were converted into wood carvings. The naked people portrayed in both the portraits and the carvings reinforced European ideas of the Native American’s savagery. Jamestown Week of August 29 : The Columbian Exchange and the First British Colonies 1063 Online Reader documents 16, 21, and 22 Settlers sailed out on December 20, 1606, 4 months later they founded Virginia and established Jamestown in 1607, making it the first permanent colony established by the British. They built houses, forts, and churches. They traded food with the Mohawtans Indians. Edward Wingfield was appointed the president of the colony. Insects carried diseases that spread to the colonists. Their hardship came in the winter, because their only access to water was a tidal river that gave them salt poisoning if they drank from it during the winter. This caused them to have nowhere to store their waste. 4/5 (80%) of their planters died, and half of their indentured servants died as well. George Percy’s view of Jamestown went from positive to negative in a matter of months. He spoke of consistent deaths, cruel diseases and wars, famine, and the misery the colonists felt living in Jamestown. Their expectation of work was based on the standards of work in England. According to their customs, men weren’t allowed to trade until the age of 30. They didn’t allow part time work, and they didn’t know how to farm. Sumptuary Laws: laws that control what people wear and consume There was internal feuding among the colonists. The Native Americans turned hostile towards them when they realized that the Jamestown settlers were there permanently and not temporarily. When Captain Newport returned to the colony, he found only 38 survivors out of the 144 he originally brought over. John Smith took leadership over the colony and save it from perishing. In 1607, Smith was caught by the Powhatan Indians which caused him to learn their language helping them to make amends among each other. He was almost a victim of human sacrifice, but Pocahontas, the daughter of a Powhatan chief, save him, helping to make further amends. Without Smith, the colony would have never survived and it would have gone bad without him. In 1617, Pocahontas married John Rolfe making, keeping the colonists and the Powhatans in harmony.
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