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Introduction to Biology Week 2 Notes

by: Takira Boyd

Introduction to Biology Week 2 Notes BIOL 1504.9HO

Marketplace > Kankakee Community College > Biology > BIOL 1504.9HO > Introduction to Biology Week 2 Notes
Takira Boyd

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These notes are for Week 2. Chapter 2 Chemistry of Life
Principles of Biology
Mr. Mager
Class Notes
Biology, Introduction, Bio, Science, week 2, notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Takira Boyd on Wednesday August 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1504.9HO at Kankakee Community College taught by Mr. Mager in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology in Biology at Kankakee Community College.


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Date Created: 08/31/16
Principles of Biology BIOL 1504.9HO Week 2 Notes  2.1 The Building Blocks of Molecules  Carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen oxygen, sulfur, and phosphorus = key elements in the  parts of living things  Food provides nutrients and is needed to survive for all organisms  Matter­ has space and mass  Elements­ substances that can’t be broke down/ changed into other substances  Atom­ smallest part on element/ has all the chemical makeup of these element  Proton­ + charge  Electron­  ­ charge  Nucleus­ core of the atom  Neutrons­ are located in the nucleus of the atom, mass of 1 and no charge  Protons/ neutrons balance each other out = Ne 0 charge  Atomic Number­ = to the number of protons in the element  Mass Number­ (atomic mass) protons + neutrons   To know the number of neutrons (atomic number – mass number  Periodic Table of Elements­ a chart arranged of elements that provides the atomic  number, relative atomic mass, key info, bout the properties, and how the atoms of  the molecule will act with others= formation of other molecules  Isotopes­ different forms of an element with the same number of protons but  different # of neutrons  Examples of Isotopes (Carbon, Potassium, and Uranium)  Radioactive Isotopes­ unstable isotopes that will lose protons, other elements, and gain energy= more stable element  Chemical Bonds­ interactions between bonds (that can be the same/different  elements) that make molecules  Octet Rule­ sometimes atoms need to fill their outer shells so they share, accept,  or donate electrons to fulfill this.   Cations­ + ions (formed by losing electrons)  Anions­ ­ ions (formed by gaining electrons)  Electron Transfer­  moving electrons from one element to another  Ionic Bond­ (+ ­ bond) a bond between ions  Covalent Bond­  two or more atoms form this bond  Nonpolar Covalent Bond­ bond that consists of two atoms or different elements  that share the same electrons   Polar Covalent Bond­ atoms spend more time near one nucleus than the other.  Hydrogen Bond­ slightly positive and negative charges of pcm (polar covalent  molecules) Ex: water  Van der Waals Interactions/ Attractions­ weak connection between molecules 2.2 Water  Water is polar  Hydrophilic­ can make hydrogen bonds and dissolves in water (water­loving)  Hydrophobic­ can’t make hydrogen bonds and don’t dissolve in water (water­ fearing)  Temperature­ measures the motion of molecules which motion is kinetic energy  Evaporation­ release of water molecules at the surface of a liquid  Solvent­ a substance that is able to dissolve in another.  Cohesion­ water can stay above a glass  Surface Tension­a substance can withstand stress  Adhesion­ attraction between molecules  Litmus Paper­ paper that is used a Ph. because it is water soluble   Ph. Scale­ relation between hydrogen ions and its Ph. (See Figure 2.12 for more  reference), ranges from 0­14= 7 is neutral  Acids­ have + hydrogen bonds and low pH  Bases have hydroxide ions and high pH  Buffers­ absorb hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions= keep the body in a narrow  range 2.3 Biological Molecules  Carbon falls in the category of being the “foundation” element for molecules in  living things  Carbohydrates­ macromolecules, CH2O  Monosaccharides­ simple sugars (glucose (most common), galactose (lactose,  milk), and fructose (fruit)= C6H12O6)  Disaccharides­ two monosaccharides have a water molecule removed, Ex: lactose, maltose, and sucrose  Polysaccharides­ long chain of monosaccharides attached by a covalent bond, E:  starch, glycogen, cellulose, and chitin  Starch­ stored from sugars in plants, Polymers of glucose are amylose and  amylopectin  Glycogen­ glucose in human and vertebrates   Cellulose­ natural biopolymer, Ex: wood and paper  Chitin­ nitrogenous carbohydrate  Lipids­ are hydrophobic= nonpolar molecules, building blocks of hormones/  plasma membrane, Ex: fats, oils, waxes, phospholipids, and steroids  Fat­ consist of glycerol and fatty acids Ex: triglyceride, have a long chain of  hydrocarbons, 4­36 carbons or 12­18 (most common)  Triglycerides­ three fatty acids (similar/ dissimilar)  Saturated Fatty Acids­ saturated fats with hydrogen  Unsaturated Fats­ a double bond of hydrocarbon chain  Oils­ unsat. Fats that melt @ room temp. Ex: olive/canola oil  Trans­fats­ made from a cis­ fat. H bond changed from the top to the bottom with  the other Hydrogen bands. Figure 2.19  Phospholipids­ plasma membrane, has both hydrophobic/ philic regions  Steroids­ have a ring structure, are hydrophobic, like cholesterol= a long tail  Proteins­ most abundant of the macromolecules, have many functions, of amino  acids and are arranged in a linear sequence  Enzymes­ aid in digestion Ex: salivary amylase  Hormones­ chemical changers (proteins or steroids), Ex: insulin  Denaturation­ loss of a function  Amino Acids­ monomers that make up proteins, have a central Carbon bond with  four different attachments of different amino acids  Polypeptide­ a polymer of amino acids, proteins  Nucleic Acids­ key macromolecules in the continuation of life, two types are  DNA and RNA  DNA­ (deoxyribonucleic acid) the genetic makeup in all living things, never  leaves the nucleus= uses RNA, a double­ helical structure (double spiral)  RNA­ involved in protein synthesis,   Nucleotides­ monomers made of DNA and RNA, made of three parts: a  nitrogenous base, a pentose (a pentagon shaped sugar), and a phosphate group


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