Introduction to Biology Week 2 Notes
Introduction to Biology Week 2 Notes BIOL 1504.9HO
Popular in Principles of Biology
Popular in Biology
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Takira Boyd on Wednesday August 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1504.9HO at Kankakee Community College taught by Mr. Mager in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology in Biology at Kankakee Community College.
Reviews for Introduction to Biology Week 2 Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 08/31/16
Principles of Biology BIOL 1504.9HO Week 2 Notes 2.1 The Building Blocks of Molecules Carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen oxygen, sulfur, and phosphorus = key elements in the parts of living things Food provides nutrients and is needed to survive for all organisms Matter has space and mass Elements substances that can’t be broke down/ changed into other substances Atom smallest part on element/ has all the chemical makeup of these element Proton + charge Electron charge Nucleus core of the atom Neutrons are located in the nucleus of the atom, mass of 1 and no charge Protons/ neutrons balance each other out = Ne 0 charge Atomic Number = to the number of protons in the element Mass Number (atomic mass) protons + neutrons To know the number of neutrons (atomic number – mass number Periodic Table of Elements a chart arranged of elements that provides the atomic number, relative atomic mass, key info, bout the properties, and how the atoms of the molecule will act with others= formation of other molecules Isotopes different forms of an element with the same number of protons but different # of neutrons Examples of Isotopes (Carbon, Potassium, and Uranium) Radioactive Isotopes unstable isotopes that will lose protons, other elements, and gain energy= more stable element Chemical Bonds interactions between bonds (that can be the same/different elements) that make molecules Octet Rule sometimes atoms need to fill their outer shells so they share, accept, or donate electrons to fulfill this. Cations + ions (formed by losing electrons) Anions ions (formed by gaining electrons) Electron Transfer moving electrons from one element to another Ionic Bond (+ bond) a bond between ions Covalent Bond two or more atoms form this bond Nonpolar Covalent Bond bond that consists of two atoms or different elements that share the same electrons Polar Covalent Bond atoms spend more time near one nucleus than the other. Hydrogen Bond slightly positive and negative charges of pcm (polar covalent molecules) Ex: water Van der Waals Interactions/ Attractions weak connection between molecules 2.2 Water Water is polar Hydrophilic can make hydrogen bonds and dissolves in water (waterloving) Hydrophobic can’t make hydrogen bonds and don’t dissolve in water (water fearing) Temperature measures the motion of molecules which motion is kinetic energy Evaporation release of water molecules at the surface of a liquid Solvent a substance that is able to dissolve in another. Cohesion water can stay above a glass Surface Tensiona substance can withstand stress Adhesion attraction between molecules Litmus Paper paper that is used a Ph. because it is water soluble Ph. Scale relation between hydrogen ions and its Ph. (See Figure 2.12 for more reference), ranges from 014= 7 is neutral Acids have + hydrogen bonds and low pH Bases have hydroxide ions and high pH Buffers absorb hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions= keep the body in a narrow range 2.3 Biological Molecules Carbon falls in the category of being the “foundation” element for molecules in living things Carbohydrates macromolecules, CH2O Monosaccharides simple sugars (glucose (most common), galactose (lactose, milk), and fructose (fruit)= C6H12O6) Disaccharides two monosaccharides have a water molecule removed, Ex: lactose, maltose, and sucrose Polysaccharides long chain of monosaccharides attached by a covalent bond, E: starch, glycogen, cellulose, and chitin Starch stored from sugars in plants, Polymers of glucose are amylose and amylopectin Glycogen glucose in human and vertebrates Cellulose natural biopolymer, Ex: wood and paper Chitin nitrogenous carbohydrate Lipids are hydrophobic= nonpolar molecules, building blocks of hormones/ plasma membrane, Ex: fats, oils, waxes, phospholipids, and steroids Fat consist of glycerol and fatty acids Ex: triglyceride, have a long chain of hydrocarbons, 436 carbons or 1218 (most common) Triglycerides three fatty acids (similar/ dissimilar) Saturated Fatty Acids saturated fats with hydrogen Unsaturated Fats a double bond of hydrocarbon chain Oils unsat. Fats that melt @ room temp. Ex: olive/canola oil Transfats made from a cis fat. H bond changed from the top to the bottom with the other Hydrogen bands. Figure 2.19 Phospholipids plasma membrane, has both hydrophobic/ philic regions Steroids have a ring structure, are hydrophobic, like cholesterol= a long tail Proteins most abundant of the macromolecules, have many functions, of amino acids and are arranged in a linear sequence Enzymes aid in digestion Ex: salivary amylase Hormones chemical changers (proteins or steroids), Ex: insulin Denaturation loss of a function Amino Acids monomers that make up proteins, have a central Carbon bond with four different attachments of different amino acids Polypeptide a polymer of amino acids, proteins Nucleic Acids key macromolecules in the continuation of life, two types are DNA and RNA DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) the genetic makeup in all living things, never leaves the nucleus= uses RNA, a double helical structure (double spiral) RNA involved in protein synthesis, Nucleotides monomers made of DNA and RNA, made of three parts: a nitrogenous base, a pentose (a pentagon shaped sugar), and a phosphate group
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'