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PSYCH 101 Chapter 2

by: Marika O'Hara

PSYCH 101 Chapter 2 PSYC 101 003

Marika O'Hara

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Chapter 2 of Psychology: Themes and Variations
Introduction to Psychology
Frederick Wiss
Class Notes
Psychology, Intro to Psychology, psych
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marika O'Hara on Wednesday August 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 101 003 at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill taught by Frederick Wiss in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill.


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Date Created: 08/31/16
Chapter  2 Wednesday,  August  31,  2016 8:02  PM Looking  for  Laws:  The  Scientific  Approach  to  Behavior Goals  of  the  Scientific  Enterprise • Three  sets  of  interrelated  goals ○ Measurement  and  description ○ Understanding  and  prediction § Hypothesis:  a  tentative  statement  about  the  relationship  between   two  or  more  variables § Variables:  any  measureable  conditions,  events,  characteristics,  or   behaviors  that  are  controlled  or  observed  in  a  study ○ Application  and  control § Theory:  a  system  of  interrelated  ideas  used  to  explain  a  set  of   observations Steps  in  a  Scientific  Investigation • STEP  1:  FORMULATE  A  TESTABLE  HYPOTHESIS ○ Operational  definition:  describes  the  actions  or  operations  that  will  be   used  to  measures  or  control  a  variable • STEP  2:  SELECT  THE  RESEARCH  AND  DESIGN  THE  STUDY ○ Participants:  the  persons  or  animals  whose  behavior  is  systematically   observed  in  a  study • STEP  3:  COLLECT  THE  DATA ○ Data  collection  techniques:  procedures  for  making  empirical   observations  and  measurements • STEP  4:  ANALYZE  THE  DATA  AND  DRAW  CONCLUSIONS ○ Statistics  plan  an  essential  role  in  the  scientific  enterprise • STEP  5:  REPORT  THE  FINDINGS ○ Journal:  a  periodical  that  publishes  technical  and  scholarly  material,   usually  in  a  narrowly  defined  area  of  inquiry ○ Scientists  use  an  elaborate  peer  review  process  to  determine  whether   studies  merit  publication  in  a  technical  journal Advantages  of  the  Scientific  Approach 1. Clarity  and  precision 2. Relative  intolerance  of  error • Research  methods:  differing  approaches  to  the  observation,  measurement,   manipulation,  and  control  of  variables  in  empirical  studies Looking  for  Causes:  Experimental  Research Advantages  of  the  Scientific  Approach 1. Clarity  and  precision 2. Relative  intolerance  of  error • Research  methods:  differing  approaches  to  the  observation,  measurement,   manipulation,  and  control  of  variables  in  empirical  studies Looking  for  Causes:  Experimental  Research • Experiment:  a  research  method  in  which  the  investigator  manipulates  a   variable  under  carefully  controlled  conditions  and  observes  whether  any   changes  occur  in  a  second  variable  as  a  result • Independent  Variable:  a  condition  or  event  that  an  experimenter  varies  in   order  to  see  its  impact  on  another  variable • Dependent  variable:  the  variable  thought  to  be  affected  by  manipulation  of   the  independent  variable Experimental  and  Control  Groups • Two  groups  in  an  experiment:  experimental  and  control  group ○ Experimental  group:  subjects  who  receive  some  special  treatment  in   regard  to  the  independent  variable ○ Control  group:  similar  subjects  who  do  not  receive  the  special  treatment   given  to  the  experimental  group • If  the  two  groups  are  alike  in  all  wats  expect  for  variation  caused  by   manipulation  of  the  independent  variable,  then  any  differences  between  the   two  groups  must  be  due  to  the  manipulation  of  the  independent  variable Extraneous  Variable • Extraneous  variables:  any  variables  other  than  the  independent  variable  that   seem  likely  to  influence  the  dependent  variable  in  a  specific  study • Confounding  of  variables:  occurs  when  two  variables  are  linked  in  a  way  that   makes  it  difficult  to  sort  out  their  specific  effect • Random  assignment:  occurs  when  all  subjects  have  an  equal  chance  of  being   assigned  to  any  group  or  condition  in  the  study Variations  in  Designing  Experiments • Sometimes  it  is  advantageous  to  use  only  one  group  of  subjects  who  serve  as   their  own  control  group Advantages  and  Disadvantages  of  Experimental  Research • Advantages ○ It  permits  conclusions  about  cause  and  effect  relationships  between   variables • Disadvantages ○ Experiments  are  often  artificial ○ Experimental  method  can't  be  used  to  explore  research  questions Looking  for  Links:  Descriptive/Correlational   Research • Descriptive/correlational  methods  permit  investigators  to  see  only  whether   there  is  a  link  or  association  between  the  variables  of  interest ○ Experiments  are  often  artificial ○ Experimental  method  can't  be  used  to  explore  research  questions Looking  for  Links:  Descriptive/Correlational   Research • Descriptive/correlational  methods  permit  investigators  to  see  only  whether   there  is  a  link  or  association  between  the  variables  of  interest The  Concept  of  Correlation • Correlation:  exists  when  two  variables  are  related  to  each  other STRENGTH  OF  THE  CORRELATION • Correlation  coefficient:  numerical  index  of  the  degree  of  relationship  between   two  variables CORRELATION  AND  PREDICTION • As  a  correlation  increases  in  strength,  the  ability  to  predict  one  variable  based   on  knowledge  of  the  other  variable  increases CORRELATION  AND  CAUSATION • A  high  correlation  does  not  tell  us  whether  a  cause -­‐effect  relationship  exists   between  two  variables • Correlation  is  not  equivalent  to  causation Naturalistic  Observation • Naturalistic  observation:  when  a    researcher  engages  in  careful  observation  of   behavior  without  intervening  directly  with  the  subjects • Allows  researchers  to  study  behavior  under  conditions  that  are  less  artificial   than  in  experiments • Reactivity:  occurs  when  a  subject's  behavior  is  altered  by  the  presence  of  an   observer Case  Studies • Case  study:  an  in-­‐depth  investigation  of  an  individual  subject Surveys • Survey:  when  researchers  use  questionnaires  or  interviews  to  gather   information  about  specific  aspects  of  participants'  background,  attitudes,   beliefs,  or  behavior • Surveys  are  used  to  obtain  information  on  aspects  of  behavior  that  are  difficult   to  observe  directly • A  major  weakness  of  surveys  is  that  they  depe-­‐reported  data Advantages  and  Disadvantages  of  Descriptive/Correlational   Research • Descriptive  research  broadens  the  scope  of  phenomena  that  psychologists  are   able  to  study • Descriptive/correlational  research  cannot  demonstrate  conclusively  that   correlated  variables  are  causally  related Looking  for  Flaws:  Evaluating  Research • Replication:  the  repetition  of  a  study  to  see  whether  the  earlier  results  are   duplicated able  to  study • Descriptive/correlational  research  cannot  demonstrate  conclusively  that   correlated  variables  are  causally  related Looking  for  Flaws:  Evaluating  Research • Replication:  the  repetition  of  a  study  to  see  whether  the  earlier  results  are   duplicated • Meta-­‐analysis:  combines  the  statistical  results  of  many  studies  of  the  same   questions,  yielding  an  estimate  of  the  size  and  consistency  of  a  variable's   effects Sampling  Bias • Sample:  the  collection  of  subjects  selected  for  observation  in  an  empirical   study • Population:  much  larger  collection  of  animals  or  people  from  which  the   sample  is  drawn  that  researchers  want  to  generalize  about • Sampling  bias:  exists  when  a  sample  is  not  representative  of  the  population   from  which  is  was  drawn Placebo  Effects • Placebo  Effects:  occur  when  participants'  expectations  lead  them  to   experience  some  change  even  though  they  receive  empty,  fake,  or  ineffectual   treatment Distortions  in  Self -­‐Report  Data • Self-­‐report  data:  data  made  up  of  participants'  verbal  accounts  of  their   behavior • Social  desirability  bias:  a  tendency  to  give  socially  approved  answers  to   questions  about  oneself. • Halo  effect:  when  someone's  overall  evaluation  of  a  person,  object,  or   institution  spills  over  to  influence  more  specific Experimenter  Bias • Experimenter  Bias:  when  a  researcher's  expectations  or  preferences  about  the   outcome  of  a  study  influence  the  results  obtained • Double-­‐blind  procedure:  a  research  strategy  in  which  neither  subjects  nor   experimenters  know  which  subjects  are  in  the  experimental  control  groups Looking  at  Ethics:  Do  the  Ends  Justify  the  Means?   The  Question  of  Deception • Some  critics  argue  that  deceiving  participants  for  a  study  is  immoral  and  may   undermine  a  participants  trust  in  others • Proponents  of  deception  argue  that  many  important  issues  could  not  have   been  investigated  without  the  use  of  deception Ethical  Principles  in  Research • The  American  Psychological  Association  has  a  set  of  ethical  standards  for   researchers 1. People's  participation  in  research  should  always  be  voluntary  and  they   • Proponents  of  deception  argue  that  many  important  issues  could  not  have   been  investigated  without  the  use  of  deception Ethical  Principles  in  Research • The  American  Psychological  Association  has  a  set  of  ethical  standards  for   researchers 1. People's  participation  in  research  should  always  be  voluntary  and  they   should  be  allowed  to  without  from  a    study  at  any  time 2. Participants  should  not  be  subjected  to  harmful  or  dangerous   treatments 3. If  a  study  requires  deception,  participants  should  be  debriefed  as  soon   as  possible 4. Participants'  right  to  privacy  should  never  be  compromised


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