Intro to Psych Chapter 1 of Textbook Notes
Intro to Psych Chapter 1 of Textbook Notes PSYC 1300
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kayra Reyes on Wednesday August 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1300 at University of Houston taught by Dr. Herb W Agan in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 86 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 08/31/16
Chapter 1 of “Mastering the World of Psychology” by Samuel E. Wood, Ellen Green Wood, Denise Boyd, 5 edition Pg 3. Psychology- A scientific study of behavior and mental processes *science isn’t science because of its subject matter but because it uses the scientific method Scientific Method- An organized set of procedures used to identify a problem, test it, collect data, find results, and explain these results STEP 1: Observe and Theorize Create a theory to explain behavior based off observations STEP 2: Formulate a Hypothesis “If, then” statement…a prediction STEP 3: Design a Study Design an experiment (and separate the necessary variables) STEP 4: Collect Data What information has been found? STEP 5: Apply Results to the Hypothesis Present results and possibly have experiment replicated by other researchers Pg 4-5. Theory- A general principle (or set of) proposed to explain the relation of facts Hypothesis- A testable prediction about conditions in which a certain behavior or mental process my occur Replication- The process of repeating a study to verify or research findings Goals of Psychology Pg 6. GOAL #1: “Description”- Identifying and classifying behaviors and mental processes as accurately as possible GOAL #2: “Explanation”- Proposing reasons for behaviors and mental processes GOAL #3: “Prediction”- Offering Predictions about how a given condition or set of conditions will affect behaviors and mental processes GOAL #4: “Influence”- Using the results of research to solve practical problems that involve behavior and mental processes Basic Research: research conducted to seek new knowledge and to explore and advance general scientific understanding Applied Research: research conducted specifically to solve practical problems and improve the quality of life *typically concerned with the 4 goal Roots of Psychology Founder of psychology is Wilhelm Wundt Pg 8. Structuralism: The first formal school of thought in psychology aimed at analyzing the basic elements, or structure of conscious mental experience (*this school is no longer existent) Functionalism: An early school of psyc. that was concerned with how humans and animals used mental processes to adapt to their environment (*was popular in America after structuralism) Diverse (includes minorities and women) Contributors in Psychology Christine Ladd-Franklin (1847-1930) Mary Whiton Calkins (1863-1930) Margaret Floy Washbern (1871-1939) Francis Cecil Sumner (1895-1954) Albert Sidney Beckham (1897- 1964) Kenneth Clark (1914-2005) George Sanchez (1906-1972) Schools of Psychology Pg 10. BEHAVIORISM: views observable, measurable behavior as the appropriate subject matter for psyc. and emphasizes the key role of environment as a determined behavior PSYCHOANALLYSIS: term Freud used for both his theory of personality and his therapy for the treatment of psycho. disorders, the unconscious is the focus HUMANISTIC: focuses on the uniqueness of humans and capacity for choice, growth, and psychological health POSITIVE PSYC: the scientific study of psychological characteristics that enable individuals and communities to thrive in the face of adversity COGNITIVE PSYC: sees humans as active participants in environment, studies mental processes like memory, reasoning, perception, problem solving, language, etc. GESTALT PSYC: emphasizes that individuals perceive objects and patterns as whole units and that the perceived whole is more than the sum of its parts INFO PROCESSING THEORY: an approach to the study of mental structures and processes that uses the computer as a model for human thinking EVOLUTIONARY: studies how human behaviors required for survival have adapted in the face of environmental pressures over the long course of evolution BIOLOGICAL: looks for links between specific behaviors and equally specific biological processes that often help explain individual differences NEUROSCIENCE: interdisciplinary field that combines the work of psychologists, biologists, biochemists, medical researchers, and others in the study of the structure and function of the nervous system SOCIOCULTURAL APPROACH: view that social and cultural factors may be just as powerful as evolutionary and physiological factors in affecting behavior and mental processes Contemporary Psych. Perspectives Psych Perspectives: General points of view used for explaining people’s behaviors and thinking, whether normal or abnormal PERSPECTIVES (major ones) BEHAVIORAL: environmental factors PSYCHOANALYTIC: emotions, unconscious motivations, childhood experiences HUMANISTIC: subjective experience, intrinsic motivations COGNITIVE: mental processes EVOLUTIONARY: inherited traits that enhance adaptability BIOLOGICAL: bio. structures, processes, heredity SOCIOCULTURAL: social and cultural variables Pg 16-18. Eclectic Position: combination of approaches to explain a particular behavior Heuristic Value: makes people think and stirs their creativity and curiosity Critical Thinking: the processes of objectively evaluating claims, propositions, and conclusions to determine whether they follow logically from the evidence presented…lead to: Independent Thinking: Suspension of judgement: Willingness to modify: No longer automatically Gather info and facts before Evaluate new evidence accept or believe what taking a position even if it contradicts ones we read or hear beliefs Anecdotal Evidence: using own experiences as evidence/data Descriptive Research Methods: research methods that yield descriptions of behavior *includes naturalistic and lab observation, case studies, and surveys Observational and Case Studies Naturalistic Observation: A descriptive research method in which researchers observe and record behavior in its natural setting without attempting to influence or control it (waiting for event to naturally happen) BUT is affected by observer bias: Certain expectations cause a distortion in researcher’s observations Laboratory Observation: A descriptive research method in which behavior is studied in a lab setting BUT may not reflect real world behavior outside a lab and is very expensive Case Study: a desc. res. method in which a single individual or small number of people are studied in great depth *usually over long periods of time and focused on individuals with uncommon disorders BUT cannot identify cause of behavior, can have observer bias, and not be applicable to a larger sum of individuals Pg 19. Survey: A descp. res. method in which researchers use interviews and/or questionnaires to gather info about attitudes, beliefs, experiences, or behaviors of a group of people Key Vocab: Population: group of interest from which a sample is selected Sample: part of population studied Representative Sample: sample that mirrors the population of interest Biased Sample: based on expectations, not reality of population “reflected” Random Sample: select random members to be surveyed as fair mix and representative of different individuals in a population Social Desirability Response: an answer chosen to please the interviewer Those surveyed can have their answers influenced by the way the interviewer looks so interviewers are chosen accordingly with different individuals The Correlation Method Pg 20-21. Correlation Method: a res. method used to establish the degree of a relationship (correlation) between characteristics, events, or behaviors Correlation Coefficient: a number value that shows the strength and direction of a relationship between two variable: +1=positive, -1=negative Correlations are useful to make PREDITCIONS They make it easier to survey subjects that can’t be asked for (tested). For example, you can’t ask pregnant mothers to drink alcohol to see if their babies get birth defects Help survey things where variables can’t be manipulated like gender/sex The Experimental Method Pg 23-24. Experimental Method: the only res. method that can be used to identify cause and effect relationships between two or more variables Casual Hypothesis: a prediction about a cause-effect relationship between two or more variables Variable: any condition or factor that can be manipulated, controlled, or measured Independent Variable: factor that is manipulated to see if it causes a change in another behavior or condition Dependent Variable: factor that is measured at the end of an experiment Experimental and Control Groups Experimental Group: the group exposed to an independent variable Control Group: a group exposed to the same environment yet not given same treatment, used for comparisons Limitations of Experimental Method Pg 25. Confounding Variables: factors other than the independent variable(s) that are unequal across groups * make it difficult to conclude if the ind. variable is responsible for any change Selection Bias: the choosing of participants to experimental or control groups that are so systematically different from the beginning that they may influence behaviors due to their difference rather than the independent variable Random Assignment: process of selecting participants for an experiment by using chance procedure to guarantee that each individual has an equal opportunity/probability of being assigned to any groups Placebo Effect: response to treatment created by the participant’s expectations about treatment rather than the treatment itself Placebo: a harmless substance given to the control group in exp. as a control for a placebo effect Experimenter’s Bias: when a researcher’s preconceived expectations slightly influence participant’s behavior or the interpretation of the results Double-blind Technique: when neither participants nor researchers know who will participate until after the data has been gathered Quasi-experimental: comparisons of groups that differ in exposure to a variable of interest that cannot be manipulated for ethical or practical reasons *alcohol & fetus example Cross-cultural Research: comparisons of mental processes and behaviors among humans living in different cultures Research Participants Pg 28. Participant-related Bias: bias where a study’s participants are not representative of the population to which results will be generalized Gender Bias: considering male participants normative and female participants as “different” Ageism: use of negative descriptions towards those of older age, ex: weak, struggling Protecting Human and Animal Participant Rights Pg 29. Main provisions of code by APA: Humans Legality: must work all tests to respect governing laws Institutional Approval: all institutions involved must approve of a study Ex: studies done in a school must be approved by the school Informed Consent: participants must be informed on study, purpose, and its possible effects/risks Deception: deception is ethical when necessary but participants shouldn’t be if possible Debriefing: when a participant is deceived, including when given a placebo, they should always be told about the deception as soon as the study is complete Client, students, etc: those with no authority must not be damaged by the study (reputation included) Payment for Participation: is expected with full info on study expectations/guidelines Publications: researchers must report and publish data findings to appropriate public Animals Legality: must follow federal, state, local laws Supervision by Experienced Personnel: experts must supervise the animal care and provide training to assistants in charge of animals Minimization of discomfort: 1) provide least discomfort to animals 2) provide enough anesthesia 3) if need to be put down, do so in humane manner
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