Theory #3377 Human Development 101
Popular in Human Development through the Lifespan
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caroline Smith on Wednesday August 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to #3377 Human Development 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Scofield in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views.
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Date Created: 08/31/16
THEORY Definition: a set of propositions that describe, explain, and predict a phenomenon. o Broad explanations for why something happens. o The world is full of theory. How was the universe created? What's wrong with the economy? o Development is full of theory. Personality, homeschooling, parenting, morality o Theories lead to testable hypothesis. Tough love reduces crime. Selfesteem improves grades. The "Mozart effect" (This theory has been disproved.) Developmental Theories o Nature / Nurture Nature (genetics, biology) Nurture (environment) Are genes to blame? o Genes threaten the "blank slate", environments mean everything default belief. Genes don't affect behavior directly. It's hard to isolate genes with a large behavioral effect. Just because genes don’t matter doesn't mean other things don't. DISCUSSION o Would the following examples be explained by either nature or nurture: A 5yearold punches a classmate. An 8monthold says her first word. A 7yearold is diagnosed with ADHD. A toddler cries when mommy leaves for work. A sixyearold gets a D on his math test. o Personal question: How can this really be tested if most families are two biological parents and a biological child? Typically, to solve this issue, identical twins raised in separate environments are studied as well as adoptees. Developmental Theories o Continuous / Discontinuous Continuous (Quantitative change) [Think of a smooth arc; quality such as vocabulary growth] Discontinuous (qualitative change) [Think of a stair case; quality such as height] Think of different developments in humans that resemble these graphs. o One course / Many courses One course (universal path) Many courses (unique paths) o Active / Passive Active (actively produce development) Passive (passively receive development) o Global / Culturally specific o Stability / Change Why have theories? o Organize things we observe o Predict the future o Apply ideas to real situations o Theories describe, explain, and predict changes over time. Evaluating Theories o A theory is better if: reflects the real world (of children) is understandable (at least to someone) explain the past and predicts the future offers practical guidelines for research logically consistent is economical (parsimonious: that all things being equal, you will choose the simple one. For example, if you are on campus and are trying to go to McDonald's, you will choose the one that is closer and easier to access.) is falsifiable (can be proven wrong) is fertile (stimulates discovery of knowledge) selfsatisfying (makes sense) o But.... Not all theories are good ones. Stuttering "Monster" study Stuttering is caused by childhood trauma. Taking two groups of children and giving positive and negative feedback based on their speech. It was disproven. o Example of a Bad Theory: Why do mosquito bites itch? When a mosquito bites, it mixes in the blood of previous victims. Sheep DNA makes our blood unusually wooly, which causes the bites to itch.
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