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Hist 1377 in class notes (Chapter 1)

by: crystalestrada0

Hist 1377 in class notes (Chapter 1) Hist 1377



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About this Document

These notes were taken in Matthew Clavin's class during the first and second day.
The U.S. to 1877
Mathew Clavin
Class Notes
history, Columbian Exchange, precolonial america, theamericas
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by crystalestrada0 on Wednesday August 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 1377 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Mathew Clavin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views.


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Date Created: 08/31/16
History 1377 Notes (Aug 25, 2016) The Collison of Cultures: -Cahokia Colombian Exchange (Colonial America was a lot like Houston today) Erik The Red and Vinland - Viking in Canada - They lost/ didn’t bring enough diseases, not populous - Native Americans were intimidated - Vikings didn’t have guns’ either - East Asians came before Columbus (bad dude) - Columbus was significant because he came back and brought things (opens flood gates to colonialization and trade) Columbus in the New World - East Asians came and were defeated by the natives before Columbus (bad dude) but he was significant because he landed and came back a year later. - Native Americans befriended Columbus because they thought he would fight their enemnds from other tribes such as the Iroquois - 1493: Columbus’s 2 Landing bringing settlers The Atlantic World - New world with the old world - This unites Europeans, Africans, and Native Americans - Europeans had the same language and culture while - The Americas has diverse ethnic groups and different languages How is America being different help Europeans exploit? -The Europeans can turn the tribes against each other and make them hate each other to the advantage of the Europeans. Summary: Columbus came to the Americas (Cuba and the Bahamas) and he and his friends were treated nicely by the native Americans because they thought he could be a help during their tribe wars. However, Columbus was more significant than the East Asians and the others who came to the Americas first because he didn’t die off like he did and defeated the NA and came back to stay. Columbus was a bad guy but brought together the Europeans, Native Americas and Africans. Columbus also broadens the diverse Native American groups and then created identity by calling them Indians. The Land before Columbus - Millions of Indians were in the Americas before Columbus - Americas were populous and had a lot of farmland and food - Europeans wiped out actual villages. They came here walked over skulls and bones and took up old huts and said that nobody was there. Cahokia (ID Term) *Before Columbus* Definition: - Largest Pre-Columbian Native American civilization in present day U.S, believed to be a population of about 40,000 people. - Were probably here during the Vikings but weren’t apparent when Columbus rolled around. - This place is located in Illinois, and across the Mississippi River from St. Louis Missouri. - Cahokia’s were a part of a MOUND CULTURE and would live in there, they created a political culture and hierarchy culture with these mounds. They had nobles live near the top of the mound where the king is. Then the outskirts are where the peasant or poorer people lived. These less noble people were very responsible for building the mounds. - Mounds and temples lead to believe that these people were religious. - There are artifacts that suggest they had extensive trade routes with the Aztecs (south of the gulf coast), and the tribes in the Great lakes in the north. - Monk’s Mound: 1,000ft tall, largest man made mound in Pre-Columbus America. - They may have had armies and defense. - Lived near the Mississippi for food and water and lived inside a forest. - 1600’s Columbus came, they were in ruins and became a ghost town leaving only the story of the great civilization. Why did they become a ghost town? - Their resources were depleted. Maybe it’s because they burned too much wood and ate all their food. But basically they screwed up their environment. Which then goes to show that they were so overpopulated (probably) and the opposite of savage if they were civilized enough to rise and fall. **Historical Significance** - They didn’t preserve themselves well but were advanced and civilized - Native Americans were civilized before Columbus (disproves Columbus and European Idea) - The fact that they rose and fell before Columbus shows that Americas weren’t savage and that the Americas wasn’t virgin land or “untapped” as said by the Pristine Myth. The Pristine Myth: Started by Colonist that said that the Americas was untouched and Europeans had to save the land and the savage natives The Truth: Europeans didn’t have to save anybody. And were justifying their horrid actions by saying that the Native Americans were uncivilized and savage. Clearly the indigenous people were doing okay on their own. Mansa and Timbuktu: 1492-1800 - 12 million crossed the Atlantic Ocean (Colonial Era) - About 80% of the Africans that crossed were enslaved. Like the Cahokians, the West Africans were advanced too, but Columbus justified himself by saying that he had to save them. - West Africa was about the most advanced place on earth, they had books, salt, gold, and slaves. - Slave Trade begins by Columbus looking for riches and these countries offer captives (not slaves initially), so technically the Africans had slaves and started the Slave trade. th During the Black Plague (14 Century) - Cahokia and Timbuktu were thriving during the Black Plague. - Europe was overpopulated, diseases come and kill about 50% of Europe’s population. - Schools, Churches and Libraries die off because they are closed down due to the plague. - ** Good thing for Europe in the long run, since the disease kills so many people, the environment is able to recover and labor becomes valuable again** Renaissance: The Rebirth of Europe (14 -17 th th Century) - The advantage of Europeans over the people anywhere else, is their ability to adapt to foreign technology so quickly and made it better. - Muslims had triangular sails and sailing instruments, Europeans perfected the technology. - Asia had gun powder and guns, Europeans perfected that too - During the era of Columbus, the printing press was in use (end of 1400’s). Religious things such as pamphlets, travel journals (like Marco Polo’s) and maps (from Vikings) would be printed and shared to everyone. - Expulsion of the Jews and the Muslims in Spain right after Columbus left to the Americas. **Columbian Exchange** (Time period of exchanges things) New World Old World Potatoes, Tomatoes, Corn, Cocoa Food: Wheat, Sugar, Coffee, (Chocolate!), Beans, Pumpkins, Pineapples, Apples, Oranges, Tobacco, Gold and Silver. Lemons, and Bananas. Animals: Horses, Cows, Pigs, Chickens, Brown Rats, Honeybees and Earth Worms Diseases: Smallpox, Measles, Influenza, Typhus Two Way Street - Stuff was brought and stuff went back to Europe - This exchange created new foods such as pizza and chocolate - Links to Irish potato famine (there were no potatoes before Columbus) Significance of the Columbian Exchange - Beginning of Globalization (shrinking of the globe) of America, Africa and all those other countries. - Modernization on a global scale - Migration of animals, crops, people, diseases and technology Latin America: Tenochtitlan - Conquistadors aka conquerors - Came here for the riches and were blown away - Millions of native people weren’t exposed to disease and immunities yet so there was an Ecological take over - The Spanish were vicious, genocidal, and enslavers - French colonize the Americas after the Spanish and Portuguese do. The Spanish and Portuguese made a killing on silver in the west indies. - The Dutch came and made New Amsterdam which is current day New York. Information taken from Matthew Clavin’s lecture in class


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