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Week 2, part 1

by: Madison Stewart

Week 2, part 1 Chem 1110 04

Madison Stewart

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This is half of the notes for this week in General Chem with Dr. Lee
General Chemistry I
Class Notes
Chemistry, general, genchem, GeneralChemistry, Isotopes, atoms
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madison Stewart on Wednesday August 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 1110 04 at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga taught by Lee in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry I in Chemistry at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga.


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Date Created: 08/31/16
Atoms:​ smallest quantity of matter that still retains the properties of matter    Elements:​ a substance that can’t be broken down into two or more simpler substances by any  means (if it’s broken down any further, it is no longer that element    Law of Conservation of Mass:  ​ when chemical reactions occur, no detectable gain or loss of  mass occurs    Law of Definite Proportions: i​ n a given chemical compound (ex. H20) the elements are always  combined in the definite proportions by mass. (ex. H20 is always two parts hydrogen and one  part oxygen)    Dalton’s Atomic Theory:   ­ Matter is made of atoms ​(still true)  ­ Atoms are indestructible ( ​ false, the atom bomb exists)  ­ In a pure sample of elements, all the atoms in it will be identical in mass and other  properties (​ false, isotopes have different atomic masses)  ­ Atoms of different elements differ in mass and other properties ( ​ still true)  ­ When atoms of different elements combine to form a specific compound, new and more  complex particles form, but the atoms are always present in a fixed ratio ​(this aspect  ofthe theory is unclear)    Radiation​: energy in the form of rays (i.e. light)    Like ​charges r ​ epel ​each other and o ​ pposite  ​ charges​ attract​ each other.    Thomson​ proposed that rays were actually streams of electrons     e­​ = electron    Wihelm ​Rontgen​ discovered ​X­rays ( ​ not consisting of charged particles)    Antoine ​Becquerel​ discovered r ​ adioactivity (​ spontaneous emission of radiation)    Three types of radiation:  Alpha rays:​ (a particles: protons) positively charged, every material has alpha  Beta rays:​ (b particles: electrons) negatively charged  Gamma rays: ​form of radiation, like X­rays, they have no charge, but are very dangerous and  can turn you into the Hulk if camera crew happen to be nearby    Ernest ​Rutherford ​used alpha particles to prove the structure of atoms. It proved that atoms  had a dense nucleus because occasionally an alpha particle would ricochet off of one during  experimentation. This disproved the “​plum pudding” ​  model of the atom.  Proton ​(in nucleus)  Mass: 1 amu  Charge: +1    Neutron ( ​ in nucleus)  Mass: 1 amu  Charge: 0    Electron ​(outside nucleus)  Mass: 0   Charge: ­1    Atomic Number:​ # of protons in the nucleus, all atoms of the same element have the same  atomic number    Atomic Mass:​ sum of all the protons and neutrons in the nucleus, two atoms of the same  element can have different atomic masses. (isotopes)    Isotopes:​ different isotopes of the same element (Carbon 12 vs. Carbon 14) have the same  amount of protons and different                    


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