Psyc 301 Week 1 Notes
Psyc 301 Week 1 Notes PSYC 301
Popular in Abnormal Psychology
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brynna Sower on Wednesday August 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 301 at Boise State University taught by Scott Armentrout in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Boise State University.
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Date Created: 08/31/16
Boise State University Abnormal Psychology PSYC 301 Chapter One: Introduction to Abnormal Behavior Psychology isn’t about “them,” it’s about US. Identifying the Presence of a Disorder 1) Psychosis: a term that encompasses all mental disorders in which the person is no longer able to distinguish the effects of their symptoms from reality (page 24) a. One symptom by itself does not determine psychosis. At least two or more symptoms must be present and related to each other to be diagnosed. 2) Syndrome: the appearance of a group of symptoms that are assumed to be a part of a specific disorder (page 24) a. The symptoms must have a correlation in order to be considered a syndrome 3) Lengths of time a. An acute condition or illness is one that has a beginning, middle, and end. It is something that is going on “now” but will end eventually (page 24) b. A chronic condition or illness is one that is long lasting, and potentially permanent. Most mental disorders are chronic. Chronic disorders may also have acute flare-ups or episodes. 4) Personality disorders: conditions that prevent people from having and maintaining relationships. These types of disorders have to do with how the person in question sees the world (lecture) a. Example: A narcissistic person sees others as extensions of themselves, and do not grasp the concept of that person having a different reality as themselves. Because of this, they have a harder time empathizing and tend to have fewer relationships and the relationships are of a lower quality. 5) Psychopaths: people who show little to no empathy for others and do not have a sense of conscience. a. To test if someone you know is a psychopath, yawn around them! If they do not yawn, they are more likely to be a psychopath. Behavior vs. Emotional Reaction 1) It can be difficult to differentiate between an emotional reaction and a behavior. 2) In order to determine which it is, make sure to look at the following a. Individual experiences of distress i. What is causing the stress? Who is feeling the distress? b. Statistical norms- Is this reaction relatively common for most people? i. How unusual does a reaction have to be before it is a disorder? 3) Harmful dysfunction: occurs when a natural internal mechanism fails to perform as expected to (page 26) a. HD can cause a different sense of reality, and a difference in perception of the world. b. These internal mechanisms can be those related to communication, rational thought, problem-solving, and overall perception. Community Involvement 1) Communities should be concerned with: a. Efforts to decrease the rates of mental disorders b. Designing activities to increase flourishing i. Flourishing: functioning at the highest possible level for that individual (page 27) ii. Positive Psychology: Getting people to reach new highs and reaching their potential (lecture) 2) Learned helplessness: occurs when a person feels powerless or hopeless due to past failure or other negative life experiences (lecture) a. Example: Two dogs were placed in boxes and were given mild electric shocks. Dog A was put into an open box that he could easily get out of, while Dog B was placed in a shut box. Dog A jumped out of the box each time a shock was delivered. Then, both dogs were put into open boxes they could both easily get out of. Dog A knew from his experience that once the shock was delivered, he could just jump out of the box. However, Dog B has learned that he cannot avoid the shocks and that he must simply endure them. Once the shocks are delivered, Dog A jumps out of the box, but Dog B does not. Dog B has developed learned helplessness. 3) Culture: values, beliefs, and practices that are shared by a group of people (page 27) a. Culture impacts psychological practices by determining what socially acceptable behavior is. Culture is always changing, which means the practice of psychology is always changing too. i. Example: Previously in our culture, homosexuality was considered a psychological disorder. However, now that our society is more accepting of it, its definition has now changed. It has since been removed from the DSM. 4) Epidemiology: the study of frequency and statistical distribution within a population (page 31) 5) Incidence: the number of cases found over a specific period of time (page 31) 6) Prevalence: the number of active cases present at a specific time (includes both old and new cases combined) (Page 31) 7) Different genders handle disorders in unique ways. Depression, anxiety, and eating disorders occur more frequently in women. Alcoholism and antisocial behaviors are more commonly associated with men (page 32) 8) Comorbidity: having two or more disorders at once (page 33) 9) Disease burden: how much a disorder negatively impacts or disables the person (page 33) Mental Health Professions 1) Psychiatry: where medicine meets psychology; typically use medicine more than psychological tools (page 34) 2) Clinical Psychology: where psychological science is applied to patients’ lives (page 34) 3) Social Work: a career field whose goal is to help people achieve a higher level of psychosocial operations (page 34) a. Not as scientifically based as psychiatry or clinical psychology b. Typically concerned with the joining of psychology tools and community resources History of Psychopathology: 1) Hippocrates introduced the theory that abnormal behaviors stemmed from an imbalance of the four key body fluids: blood, phlegm, black bile, and yellow bile. Before this theory, it was assumed that abnormal behaviors were due to demonic entities being present in the body. a. Treatments for both physical and mental illnesses were typically very long and painful processes. 2) Insane Asylums: places of residence for the mentally ill/disabled. Established in the 1600s-1700s (page 36) a. Insane asylums are one of the first developments that solidified society’s view that the community should come together to help the mentally disabled b. Dorothea Dix and other advocated created a social movement that led to a more widespread construction of mental hospitals 3) Worchester Lunatic Hospital: Founded in 1833, first mental hospital to provide both mental and physical treatment to mentally disabled patients (page 36) a. Woodward, the superintendent, was believed to be one of the fathers of modern psychiatry. b. The primary psychological treatments involved reeducation, religious education, and various therapies. c. The primary physical treatments involved bleeding, purging, and the prescription of heavy medications. Methods of Study 1) Case Study: a detailed synopsis on a specific individual’s symptoms and experiences (page 38) a. Helpful in cases where little is known about the condition b. Some case studies can be open to interpretation c. A single case study is not representative of every person with that condition or disorder 2) Hypothesis: a new prediction that can be tested (page 39) 3) Null Hypothesis: states that the hypothesis is not true (page 39)
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