Historical Theories #3377 Human Development 101
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caroline Smith on Wednesday August 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to #3377 Human Development 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Scofield in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views.
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Date Created: 08/31/16
HISTORICAL THEORIES Historical Perspectives o Preformationism Children are small adults. Children were treated as adults as diets and responsibilities. This resulted in an overall shorter lifespan (expected death around the age of 30). o Early Religion Children innately evil. Children were born with their sins, and your job as a parent were to raise the child against the influence of sin. o Philosophy Locke Tabula rasa Locke believed that children were born like a "blank slate." i.e., without talents, characteristics, personality, etc. Parents raised the children to influence how they developed. [Supports the nurture debate] Rouseau Children born innately good. Children are born with the ability to mature at our biological stages of life. o Evolution Darwin Natural selection; survival of the fittest Psychoanalytic Theories Freud o Psychosexual Theory there are three basic parts of the human psyche Id (study this to mean instinctual drives) Instinctual drives need to eat, need to reproduce, need to use the restroom (most seen in infants) Pleasure principle Ego emerges as you get older Balance the Id's demands (For example, when you are twoyearsold and you need to use the restroom, you go. When you turn about fouryearsold, you are told to wait to use the restroom. This is to show control over your instincts.) Reality principle Superego Embodied societal rules social compass, developing manners Conscience moral compass o Freud 5 stages each stage named for the part of the body that is being focused to meet the needs Oral (01 years old) Emergence of Id For example, when a child is an infant, they learn best by putting items in their mouths to explore them. Anal (13 years old) Emergence of Ego Toilet training Phallic (36 years old) Emergence of Superego Oedipal/ Electra Complex there is a natural urge in every child to be attracted to the opposite sex parent and see the same sex parent as a threat. (Think of the concept of "mommy's boy" and "daddy's girl") Latent (611 years old) Genital (1218 years old) Contributions of Freud Unconscious mind Fixation: Oral, Anal, etc. [There is a theory that if you didn't complete these stages correctly, then it can be seen in your adult behavior. For example, if you do not complete the Anal stage, then a person could be very organized or very disorganized.] Psychotherapy Early Experience: early experiences effect a person well into the adult years. [The theory that a person will date a person similar to their mother/ father based on their relationships with their parents.] Criticisms Not Lifespan Hard to test Hypnosis, free association (i.e. an inkblot, dream interpretation) Focus on sex, males Psychosocial Theories Erikson o Psychosocial Theory Series of social crises Trust vs. Mistrust Do I trust my surroundings? Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt Can I do things? Initiative vs. Guilt Is it okay if I do things? Industry vs. Inferiority Am I good at things? Identity vs. Role Confusion Who am I? Intimacy vs. Isolation Can I love and be loved? Generativity vs. Stagnation Am I a good me? Integrity vs. Despair Was it okay yo be who I was? o Learning Theory Behaviorism: focused on the actions and behaviors, and less on the mind Observable behaviors Mind is a "black box": the mind should have no part in any theories Classical Conditioning Pavlov Little Albert: This was an experiment where researchers held up various objects to an infant named Albert to see his reaction. At first, he shows no fear for anything. Then, they start to show him a rabbit and then making a loud noise to startle him. Soon, he would shy away from the rabbit because he associated the rabbit with the startling sound. Operant Conditioning Punishment Reinforcement o Classical Conditioning (Pavlov) Unconditioned (Neutral) Stimulus: Food Response: Drool Conditioned (Learned) Stimulus: Bell Response: Drool Pavlov's Experiment: Pavlov would use a bell to signal dinner for dogs. He would ring the bell and then give them food which caused the dogs to drool. Soon, the dogs would drool simply with the sound of the bell. [For example, copy this video. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Eo7jcI8fAu] o Operant Conditioning Reinforcement (Increase behavior) Negative: take aversive [In other words, to take away something that that person doesn't want or like to increase behavior. For example, if you do this you don't have to the dishes tonight.] Positive: give wanted [If you do this, then I will give you a dollar, or a lollipop, etc.] Punishment (Decrease behavior) Positive: give aversive [In other words, if you do something that is considered bad behavior, then you receive something that is not wanted. For example, spankings.] Negative: take wanted [For example, getting grounded.] For example, copy this link and watch. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vGazyH6fQQ4 o Behaviorism Contributions Observable Behavior Scientifically Rigorous Applicable Criticisms Child as Passive Ignored Cognitive Instinctual Drift o Social Learning Bandura Modeling, Imitation During a study, children were watching adults be violent with a Bobo doll. So when the children had the chance to play with the Bobo doll, the children were also violent with the doll. When a group of children who observed an adult act passively with the Bobo doll, the children imitated this behavior. However, when the children watched the adult act aggressively against the Bobo doll and then got into trouble, the children did not imitate the aggressive behavior with the doll. Cognitive Development: Piaget o Theory of Genetic Epistemology (biological) Adaptation: understanding new information Assimilation Using existing knowledge to understand new information e.g., trike to training wheels, bottles to sippy cup Accomodation Creating new knowledge to understand new information e.g., training wheels to bike, sippy cup to cup Organization Equilibration o Early Stages Sensorimotor (02 years) Babies "think" physically. Babies learn primarily by the sense of touch. With eyes, ears, hands [Think about playing peekaboo with an infant and how the absence of your face shift their focus from you to something else. "Out of sight, out of mind."] e.g., object permanence [For example, copy link and watch. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U qW__fOOSk ] Preoperational (26 years) Toddlers can think symbolically e.g., conservation "egocentric" These children can't think of more than one thing at a time. [Copy link and watch. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GLj0IZFLKvg] o Later Stages Concrete Operations (612 years) [Copy link and watch. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gA04ew6Oi9M] Children can think logically and systematically e.g., Conservation Formal Operations (12+ years) Adolescents can think abstractly e.g., Reasoning Vygotsky o Sociocultural development: Knowledge acquired through social interaction with the world Scaffolding: structured support for learning. Private speech: transferring knowledge from world to mind (by talking to self). Zone of proximal development: difference between what can be done (or is known) and what can be done (or known) with help. Information Processing o The ability to process new information. Computer is used as analogy for the mind, e.g., hardware = brain, software =mental processes (like attention, memory, perception) e.g., terminology like: "input, output, memory, capacity, duration, processing speed" Development is a function of processing speed, efficiency, and capacity.
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