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Historical Theories

by: Caroline Smith

Historical Theories #3377 Human Development 101

Caroline Smith
GPA 3.0

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About this Document

These are notes on historical theories in Human Development. It digs seep into the different theories and different theorists.
Human Development through the Lifespan
Dr. Scofield
Class Notes
historical, theories, Freud
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caroline Smith on Wednesday August 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to #3377 Human Development 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Scofield in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views.

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Date Created: 08/31/16
HISTORICAL THEORIES  Historical Perspectives o Preformationism  Children are small adults.  Children were treated as adults as diets and  responsibilities. This resulted in an overall shorter  lifespan (expected death around the age of 30).  o Early Religion  Children innately evil.   Children were born with their sins, and your job as a  parent were to raise the child against the influence of  sin.  o Philosophy  Locke  Tabula rasa ­ Locke believed that children were born  like a "blank slate." i.e., without talents, characteristics, personality, etc.   Parents raised the children to influence how they  developed. [Supports the nurture debate]  Rouseau  Children born innately good.  Children are born with the ability to mature at  our biological stages of life. o Evolution  Darwin  Natural selection; survival of the fittest  Psychoanalytic Theories ­ Freud o Psychosexual Theory ­ there are three basic parts of the human  psyche   Id (study this to mean instinctual drives)  Instinctual drives ­ need to eat, need to reproduce,  need to use the restroom (most seen in infants)  Pleasure principle   Ego ­ emerges as you get older   Balance the Id's demands (For example, when you  are two­years­old and you need to use the restroom,  you go. When you turn about four­years­old, you are  told to wait to use the restroom. This is to show control over your instincts.)  Reality principle  Superego  Embodied societal rules ­ social compass, developing  manners  Conscience ­ moral compass o Freud  5 stages ­ each stage named for the part of the body that is  being focused to meet the needs  Oral (0­1 years old)  Emergence of Id   For example, when a child is an infant, they learn best by putting items in their mouths to explore  them.   Anal (1­3 years old)  Emergence of Ego  Toilet training  Phallic (3­6 years old)  Emergence of Superego  Oedipal/ Electra Complex ­ there is a  natural urge in every child to be attracted  to the opposite sex parent and see the same sex parent as a threat. (Think of the  concept of "mommy's boy" and "daddy's  girl")  Latent (6­11 years old)  Genital (12­18 years old)  Contributions of Freud  Unconscious mind   Fixation: Oral, Anal, etc. [There is a theory that if you  didn't complete these stages correctly, then it can be  seen in your adult behavior. For example, if you do not  complete the Anal stage, then a person could be very  organized or very disorganized.]  Psychotherapy  Early Experience: early experiences effect a person  well into the adult years. [The theory that a person will  date a person similar to their mother/ father based on  their relationships with their parents.]  Criticisms  Not Lifespan  Hard to test  Hypnosis, free association (i.e. an inkblot, dream  interpretation)  Focus on sex, males  Psychosocial Theories ­ Erikson o Psychosocial Theory  Series of social crises  Trust vs. Mistrust ­ Do I trust my surroundings?  Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt ­ Can I do things?  Initiative vs. Guilt ­ Is it okay if I do things?   Industry vs. Inferiority ­ Am I good at things?  Identity vs. Role Confusion ­ Who am I?  Intimacy vs. Isolation ­ Can I love and be loved?  Generativity vs. Stagnation ­ Am I a good me?  Integrity vs. Despair ­ Was it okay yo be who I was? o Learning Theory  Behaviorism: focused on the actions and behaviors, and less  on the mind  Observable behaviors  Mind is a "black box": the mind should have no part in  any theories  Classical Conditioning  Pavlov  Little Albert: This was an experiment where  researchers held up various objects to an infant named  Albert to see his reaction. At first, he shows no fear for  anything. Then, they start to show him a rabbit and  then making a loud noise to startle him. Soon, he would shy away from the rabbit because he associated the  rabbit with the startling sound.   Operant Conditioning  Punishment  Reinforcement o Classical Conditioning (Pavlov)  Unconditioned (Neutral)  Stimulus: Food  Response: Drool  Conditioned (Learned)  Stimulus: Bell  Response: Drool   Pavlov's Experiment: Pavlov would use a bell to signal dinner for dogs. He would ring the bell and then give them food  which caused the dogs to drool. Soon, the dogs would drool  simply with the sound of the bell. [For example, copy this  video.] o Operant Conditioning  Reinforcement (Increase behavior)  Negative: take aversive [In other words, to take away  something that that person doesn't want or like to  increase behavior. For example, if you do this you don't have to the dishes tonight.]  Positive: give wanted [If you do this, then I will give  you a dollar, or a lollipop, etc.]  Punishment (Decrease behavior)  Positive: give aversive [In other words, if you do  something that is considered bad behavior, then you  receive something that is not wanted. For example,  spankings.]  Negative: take wanted [For example, getting  grounded.]  For example, copy this link and  watch. o Behaviorism  Contributions  Observable Behavior  Scientifically Rigorous  Applicable  Criticisms  Child as Passive  Ignored Cognitive  Instinctual Drift  o Social Learning  Bandura  Modeling, Imitation  During a study, children were watching adults be  violent with a Bobo doll. So when the children had the  chance to play with the Bobo doll, the children were  also violent with the doll. When a group of children  who observed an adult act passively with the Bobo  doll, the children imitated this behavior. However,  when the children watched the adult act aggressively  against the Bobo doll and then got into trouble, the  children did not imitate the aggressive behavior with  the doll.   Cognitive Development: Piaget o Theory of Genetic Epistemology (biological)  Adaptation: understanding new information  Assimilation  Using existing knowledge to understand new  information  e.g., trike to training wheels, bottles to  sippy cup  Accomodation  Creating new knowledge to understand new  information  e.g., training wheels to bike, sippy cup to  cup  Organization  Equilibration  o Early Stages  Sensorimotor (0­2 years)  Babies "think" physically. Babies learn primarily by  the sense of touch.   With eyes, ears, hands [Think about playing  peek­a­boo with an infant and how the absence  of your face shift their focus from you to  something else. "Out of sight, out of mind."]  e.g., object permanence [For example, copy link  and watch.­ qW__fOOSk  ]  Preoperational (2­6 years)  Toddlers can think symbolically  e.g., conservation  "egocentric" ­ These children can't think of more than  one thing at a time. [Copy link and  watch.] o Later Stages  Concrete Operations (6­12 years) [Copy link and  watch.]  Children can think logically and systematically   e.g., Conservation  Formal Operations (12+ years)  Adolescents can think abstractly   e.g., Reasoning   Vygotsky  o Socio­cultural development:  Knowledge acquired through social interaction with the  world  Scaffolding: structured support for learning.  Private speech: transferring knowledge from world to  mind (by talking to self).  Zone of proximal development: difference between  what can be done (or is known) and what can be done  (or known) with help.  Information Processing o The ability to process new information.  Computer is used as analogy for the mind,  e.g., hardware = brain, software =mental processes  (like attention, memory, perception)  e.g., terminology like: "input, output, memory,  capacity, duration, processing speed"  Development is a function of processing speed, efficiency,  and capacity.       


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