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BSC 108 Week 2 Notes

by: Jared Helton

BSC 108 Week 2 Notes BSC 108

Jared Helton
GPA 3.4

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For classes 8/22, 8/24, and 8/26
Intro to Biology Non-Maj
Dr. Yates
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jared Helton on Wednesday August 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 108 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Yates in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Intro to Biology Non-Maj in Biology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 08/31/16
BSC 108 8/22/16 Chapter 2 Elements and Atoms  Element o A substance that cannot be broken down into other substances by chemical reactions o 92 naturally occurring elements  Atom o The smallest unit of an element that has all it’s properties Element in Organims  Hydrogen – H  Carbon – C  Nitrogen –  Oxygen –  Phosphorus –  Sulfer – Others  Sodium – NA  Potassium - K  Iron - FE  Magnesium – MG  Calcium -  Chlorine Body Composition  Oxygen – 65%  Carbon – 18.5%  Hydrogen –   Trace Elements o Essential for life o An Iodine deficiency causes goiter  Fluoride o Put in public water o Here has been a sharp decline in tooth decay in the last few decades o The fluoride in drinking water illustrates the point that organisms are chemical systems.  Some Elements are harmful to life o Cadium  Found in some children’s toys  A known carcinogen o Lead Atoms  Protons o Positive Charge  Neutron o No charge (Neutral)  Electron o Negatively charged Characteristics of Atoms  Atomic number, number of protons, determines which element it is  An atoms mass number (often called atomic weight) = the number of protons plus neutrons.  In a neutral Atom the number of electrons = the number of protons Isotopes  Isotopes of an element contain different number of neutrons  Radioactive Isotopes o The nucleus decays giving of particles of energy  Radioactive isotopes in Medicine o PET scan o Alzheimer’s Energy  Energy is the capacity to do work or make a change in matter  Joining atoms or breaking up molecules takes energy  2 types of energy o Potential energy –Stored energy  Stored in bonds that hold atoms together o Kinetic Energy – doing work  When electrons move to a lower energy level, energy is released  Kinetic energy is released when bonds that hold atoms together are broken BSC 108 8/24/16 Bonds  Ionic Bond o Attraction between positive and negative ions  Ions are atoms that have gained or lost electrons o 2Na +Cl2  2Na+Cl- o Reaction  Product o Moderate strength  Covalent Bond o Sharing electrons between atoms  Ex. Hydrogen and Oxygen = water o Single bonds – sharing one pair of electrons  H-O-H, -C-C-C- o Double Bonds – Sharing 2 pairs of electrons  -C=C- o Strongest Bonds  Hydrogen Bond o Unequal Sharing of Electrons o With water, electrons of hydrogen spend more time near the oxygen atoms.  Bonds between water droplets o Weakest Bond Water and Life  Life on Earth began in water and evolved there for 3 billion years. o Modern life still remains tied to water.  Properties of Water o High Heat of Vaporization  As water evaporates, it cools organisms  Sweating, panting, transpiration o Ice Formation  When water freezes, it expands & floats due to the formation of a crystalline structure.  Important to aquatic organisms. o Cohesion and Adhesion  Cohesion- attraction between like molecules (other water molecules)  Adhesion- Attraction between different molecules o High Polarity  Water is a polar molecule  Unequal Charge Distribution  Electrons spend more time around the oxygen than Hydrogen  Water molecules form hydrogen bonds with one another, and with other molecules  Hydrogen bonds are weak, they are constantly broken and reformed o Solvent  Solution  A liquid that is a homogenous mixture of two or more substances  Ex. Salt water  Solvent  The dissolving agent of a solution  Ex. Water  Solute  The substance that is being dissolved  Ex. Salt o Water is the primary solvent in cells  Many of the chemicals and nutrients of an organism are dissolved  These make up the cytoplasm of the cells  Not everything will dissolve in water  Only those substances that are ionic or polar will dissolve in water  Hydrophilic- Water loving (polar)  Hydrophobic- A substance that is nonpolar and will not dissolve in water. (oils and fats) o Water can ionize  H20  H+ + OH-  (H30+ hydronium ion)  In pure water [H+] = [OH-]  If [H+] > [OH-], then acid  If [H+] < [OH-], then base o pH  Changes in pH of body fluids can affect  How molecules are transported across membranes  How rapidly chemical reactions take place  Affect the shape of proteins o Acid Rain  Rain with pH of less than 7  SO3 and NO2 dissolve into water to form sulfuric and nitric acid  Effects are severe in areas downwind  Lowers pH of lakes, streams, soils, thus can kill organisms directly  Dissolves toxic metals such as aluminum which contaminants water  systems killing organisms indirectly. BSC 108 8/26/16 Chapter 3 The Molecules of Life  Macromolecules o Molecules are made by living cells o 4 classes  Proteins  Lipids  Nucleic Acid  Carbohydrates o Cells make carbohydrates, proteins and nucleic acid o Polymers  A large molecule made from many similar small molecules called subunits or monomers  Dehydration/Condensation o Condensation reaction  A bond forms between to monomers o Dehydration reaction  2 molecules are covalently bonded to each other through the loss of a water molecule o Hydrolysis Reaction  Water breaks the bond and separates it into polymers  A process whereby polymers are disassembled to monomers.  The reverse of the dehydration reaction.  Bonds are broken by by the addition of water molecules  Carbohydrates o Subunits are sugars o Contains C, H, O in ratio of 1:2:1 o Polymers are polysaccharides o Store Energy  Animals- glycogen  Plants- starch o Functions of sugars (monosaccharides)  Provide energy  Structure o Monosaccharides  Glucose- sport drinks  Fructose- found in fruit o Honey contains both o Disaccharides  Two sugars  Joined by the process of dehydration synthesis  It is constructed from two monosaccharides  Lactose is another type of disaccharides  Having trouble digesting lactose is lactose intolerance o Lactase helps to breakdown lactose  The most common disaccharide is sucrose  Common table sugar o Glucose linked to a fructose o Sucrose is extracted from sugar cane and sugar beets o Polysaccharides  Complex carbohydrates  They are long chains of sugar units  They are polymers of monosaccharides o Starch o Glycogen o Cellulose  The most abundant organic compound on earth  Major component of wood  “Dietary fiber”  Grazing animals survive off of a diet of cellulose


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