Class notes, 8/30/2016
Class notes, 8/30/2016 AAH 1010
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Regan Notetaker on Wednesday August 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to AAH 1010 at Clemson University taught by Beth A. Lauritis in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Survey of Art and Architectural History I in Arts and Humanities at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 08/31/16
AAH Class Notes, 8/30/16 (Follow along with Dr. Lauritis’ Powerpoint slides) End of Intro to PreHistory Powerpoint.. Neolithic Era Greater sense of people exerting control over environment. Rather than hunters and gatherers, they raise herds and have farms. They are settling into communities, city-states, and have an organized society that leads to specialized skills. Monumental stone architecture. Great stone tower built into the settlement wall, Jericho, ca. 8,000-7,000 BCE. – Stacked stone border protects from outside threats. Human figure, from ain Ghazal, Jordan, c. 6750 BCE- importance and attention to human form Restored view of a section of Level VI, Catal Hoyul, Turkey- Houses adjoin each other, enter through the roof- can be a defense. As societies become settled, they acquire wealth. Carefully mapped out structure. Deer hunt, detail of a wall painting from Level III, Catal Hoyuk, Turkey- Mural- done on plaster of a wall, is in a residence, not a cave …Landscape-early depiction of landscape and volcanic eruption- particular moment in history Gallery leading to the main chamber of the passage grave, c. 3200-2500 BCE- Ritual structures emerge around burial places. More sophisticated corbelling. Transporting these big stones far reaches suggests organized groups. Megalith- Monumental architecture made with “big stones”. Evident in this era Stonehenge- most recognizable megalith, sarsen- a type of sandstone. Astrological structure, kind of calendar and way of keeping time. Lots of evidence that it is a burial ground. Recent discoveries of 15 more late-Neolithic structures underground connected to Stonehenge. Post- upright member, topped with LINTEL. “Peg” on top of post fits lintel. Trilithon- three part structure Mesopotamia and Persia (Follow along with “MesoPers” slides) Iconography- imagery meant to be seen symbolically rather than literally Mesopotamia- Area between two rivers Sumerian 3500-2332 BCE Akkadian 2332-2150 BCE Neo-Sumerian 2150-2000 BCE Babylonian 1800-1600 BCE Assyrian 900-612 BCE Achaemenid 538-330 BCE Neolithic era importance-Develops an organized way of life. Permanent dwellings. Largely deserts-no trees, or stones. Mostly mud brick used to build structures. This flat land does not offer natural defenses. Different settled communities often in conflict with each other. Sumerian- first known culture. Known for invention of city-states. City-states were ruled by kings, but kings were subordinate to gods. All have a different god or goddess for each city-state. They want favor with the gods. They develop earliest known writing- cuneiform Cuneiform- “wedge-shaped” earliest known form of writing. Gilgamesh Tablet- predates Homer’s Iliad. Some suggestion that it inspired the Iliad. Story about a monster but also includes possible historic events. Cylinder seal form Uruk- stamp or seal, like a signature. This seal from the Royal Cemetery of Ur suggests that the city-state was wealthy. The object rolls over a clay tablet to make an impression and reveal a low-relief that tells a story White temple and ziggurat, Uruk- White temple was on top of this structure. One of the earliest Sumerian cities of Uruk. Each city-state has one. When something is elevated it tends to be an important structure. Religious figures, scribes, figures of government all centered in this temple. On ziggurat to give height- mediate between gods and earth. Ziggurat- stepped platform for a temple Plan- drawing of the above view of a layout Votive offering- offerings made to gods Presentation of offering to Innana- Goddess Inanna (later named Isthar) represents fertility. Top register shows Inanna. She is bigger than the others, known as hierarchic scale. Very low relief in the bands of material. The next register are figures bringing votive offerings to Inanna. Piece suggests belief system and worship. Very bottom register represents water which irrigates the grains, then feed the sheep (bottom register then working up). This representation suggests a community as opposed to the individual. Register- bands of material, usually horizontal Hierarchic scale- figures larger than life suggest more importance Female head (Inanna?)- Very smooth and stylized. Carved from marble that is not native. This costly material suggests her significance. Sculpture in the round- work that it is constructed or carved to be viewed on all sides Statuettes of worshippers- The eyes are much too large-the figures are ever- watchful waiting for the gods to come down. One is larger than the others, perhaps is more significant than the others. Formal qualities- rudimentary, bodies are reduced to basic cylindrical shapes. Quiz 1 ID List: The works covered in class through August 30th Animal Plaque, Apollo 11 Cave, 23,000 BCE, Paleolithic: Charcoal on stone. Stone is pictured broken in half and the animal is facing left, faint charcoal remains. Nude Woman, Willendorf, 28,000-25,000 BCE, Paleolithic: Previously named Venus of Willendorf. That was incorrectly named because we don’t know enough about this culture to assume that they had female deities or idealized female figures. This figure is only 4 ¼” high and made of limestone. There are many of these small figures making them portable, perhaps to carry around. Could help them with their own fertility. Chauvet Cave, France, (Aurochs [type of cattle], horses, and rhinos), 30,000-28,000 (or 15,000-13,000 BCE), Paleolithic: The rendering of animals are in greater detail than other cave paintings, yet the Chauvet cave predates the Altamira paintings. Chauvet Cave is considered the oldest cave paintings. There are disputes over the age due to possible contamination of the radio-carbon dating. Hall of the Bulls, Lascaux Cave, France, 15,000-13,000 BCE, Paleolithic: The bulls are facing different direction- this is not a herd. The bulls are drawn in profile view but they show both horns and all four legs of the animals. This is called composite view. The largest bull is 11 feet, 6 inches long! Deer Hunt, Catal Hoyuk, c. 5,750 BCE, Neolithic: Painting is on plaster on a wall inside a residence, not a cave. The large red deer is surrounded by scattered black stick figures. Stonehenge, c. 2550-1600 BCE, Neolithic: This structure is very recognizable and widely discussed. It’s likely it will be on the quiz. This megalith (monumental architecture made with “big stones”) is made of “sarsen,” a type of sandstone. It’s an astrological structure, like a calendar, and is a way of keeping time. There are lots of evidence that it’s a burial ground. Recent discoveries have found 15 more late-Neolithic structures underground connected to Stonehenge. It is constructed with two upright posts and topped with a lintel. This makes a “trilithon,” or three-part structure. Many of these trilithons stand around to make a circle. White Temple and ziggurat at Uruk, c.3200-3000 BCE, Sumerian: The White Temple is no longer there but was set atop a stepped platform structure called a ziggurat in one of the earliest Sumerian cities named Uruk. Each city-state had a temple. It’s raised to a higher level to suggest its members are important officials and the mediators between the gods and the earth. Religious figures, scribes, and governmental figures all are centered in this temple. Eshnunna statuettes, c. 2900-2600 BCE, Sumerian: Statuettes of worshipers from Square Temple at Eshnunna, Iraq. Gypsum inlaid with shell and black limestone. The eyes are much too large for the figures making them “ever-watchful” waiting for the gods to come down. One statuette is larger than the others making him more significant, perhaps a god. Formal qualities- the bodies are rudimentary, they’re reduced to basic cylindrical shapes. Head of an Akkadian ruler, c. 2250-2200 BCE, Akkadian: Stylized form of Akkadian king’s head made from copper. The eye was purposefully gouged and damaged. Stele of Naram-Sin, c. 2254-2218 BCE. Pink sandstone, Akkadian: Shows the larger than life King Naram-Sin ascending the Zagros Mountains as his soldiers and enemies look up to him.
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