Biopsychology chapters/lectures/ 1 and 2
Biopsychology chapters/lectures/ 1 and 2 41363
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jennifer Wagner on Wednesday August 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 41363 at Kent State University taught by Dr. Douglas L. Delahanty in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 58 views. For similar materials see Biopsychology in Psychology at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 08/31/16
Biopsychology Fall 2016 Lectures 1 and 2 What is physiological psychology? Biological approach to the study of behavior Neuroscience = the study of the nervous system Behavioral neuroscientists are primarily animal focused Physiological psychology taking a biological approach to the study of psychology Brief history of biopsychology (Key people involved and theories) Plato and other early Greek philosophers were dualists, meaning they believed the mind and body were separate entities, acting on their own and not relying on each other. Rene Descartes was the father of modern philosophy—thought humans were like machines. o “Preset” and used reflexes as an example. If you touch something hot, you would immediately move your hand o Said mind and body were linked British empiricists (Locke, Berkely, Hume) o Observation=knowledge o The only way to know something is through observation Pierre Flourens—experimental ablation o Destroy different parts of the animal’s brain then sew back up and see how it behaves o Localization of function doctrine Different parts of the brain are in charge of different functions Broca and Wernickeautopsies of brain damaged patients waited until dead then studied their brains. Broca: difficulty producing speech Wernicke: difficulty comprehending speech Golgi—neuron is the basic unit of the nervous system Nervous system contains two types of cells 1. Neuron—communication cells responsible for behavior. About 100 billion in body 2. Supporting cells—take care of neurons, provide structure/give shape, clean cell, about 1 trillion Almost all neurons contain: o Cell body, or soma o Dendrites o Axon o Terminal buttons 3 types of neurons based on structure 1. Unipolar—has 1 appendage off of the cell body 2. Bipolar—has 2 sides off cell body. Soma is at the center with appendages off each end 3. Multipolar—most common. Has many appendages off of the cell body 3 types depending on function 1. Sensory—take info from the outside and bring it into the central nervous system (CNS). Almost always unipolar or bipolar. 2. Motor—located primarily in the periphery nervous system (PNS) and synapse on a muscle, cause contraction. Almost always multipolar. Both sensory and motor are part of the PNS 3. Interneuron—located in the CNS—multipolar. Deciding cells that need to choose what to do in the CNS. Inside Neurons 1. Membrane 2. Cytoplasm 3. Nucleus—control center 4. Mitochondria—provide cell with energy 5. Neurofilaments—support and shape the cell 6. Microtubules—transport substances from place to place within the cell 7. Endoplasmic reticulum 8. Golgi apparatus—wraps proteins and vesicles 9. Lysosomes Supporting cells 1. Glial cells—located in the CNS a. Astrocytes—found in CNS provide physical support: destroy dead neurons (phagocytosis). Most common glial cell. b. Oligodendrocytes—found in the CNS. provide support: produce myelin sheath— insulates and speeds transmission down the axon—nodes of Ranvier. Same as astrocytes except they can fold around the axon to create myelin sheath (many can be formed at a time) 2. Schwann cells—exist only in the PNS—also support axons and produce myelin: only can produce one at a time. Also aid in digestion of dead axons and arrange themselves to support and guide new growth and regeneration Neural Communication 2 types of communication: 1. Within neurons—electrical 2. Between neurons—chemical Within neurons—through action potentials (APs) Resting membrane potential is 70mV Negatively charged within the cell There are different rates of firing and 70 is the base rate, when nothing is happening within/to the cell. 2 types of ions: cations (positively charged, +) and anions (negatively charged, ) 2 forces on ions 1. Diffusion—the desire to move from high concentration to low concentration 2. Electrostatic pressure—like charges repulse each other A membrane impermeable—inside of cell is negatively charged, many of those negative ions do not move outside of the cell K+ (Potassium) balances: diffusion out, electrostatic in Cl (chloride) balances: diffusion in, electrostatic out Na+ (Sodium) dissusion in and electrostatic in Na+K+ pump maintains membrane potential: 3 Na+ out for 2 K+ in Action Potential Brief drop in membrane resistance to Na+ Threshold—Excitation that needs to happen in order for cell to be excited and depolarize, opening channels Depolarization—cell becomes less positive Hyperpolarization—drops below resting membrane charge of 70mV. The natural consequence of AP All or none law—if axon hillock gets enough stimulation, it will make it down the length of the axon. AP remains constant in size. Rate law—differences in strength of muscle contractions not due to differences in size of AP but to differences in rate of firing. If weak, slow rate of firing. If strong, continuously firing. Salatory conduction in myelinated axons o Saves energy o Faster o Action potential appears to “dance” or jump from one node of Ranvier (space between myelin sheath sections, just the bare axon). The action potential gets smaller and smaller, but there is still enough space for the message to pass. The action potential is regenerated at nodes of Ranvier. Within neurons (Synaptic Transmission, chemical) Neurons communicate with each other through synapses When depolarized, terminal buttons depolarize, C++ channels open and C++ rushes in and opens fusion pore which is where the vesicles bind to inside of the terminal button. This releases neurotransmitter which travels across synapse and produces IPSP (inhibitory, doesn’t want to fire) or EPSP (excitatory, wants to fire). o This process occurs by two means o 1. Direct (Ionotropic) – simplest, most rare. Molecule of neurotransmitter directly attaches to binding site o 2. Indirect (Metabotropic) – when neurotransmitter binds, activates multiple steps How do we get rid of excess neurotransmitter? 1. Reuptake—presynaptic takes it back. Like a recycling method, can be used again and again. 2. Enzymatic deactivation—enzymes destroy neurotransmitter
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