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The Physical Universe ASTR170B1 Class & Book Notes

by: Alma Rose Jackson

The Physical Universe ASTR170B1 Class & Book Notes ASTR 170B1

Marketplace > University of Arizona > ASTR 170B1 > The Physical Universe ASTR170B1 Class Book Notes
Alma Rose Jackson
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About this Document

The notes from the class lectures and from the readings for the first week of class.
The Physical Universe
Daniel Marrone
Class Notes




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alma Rose Jackson on Wednesday August 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ASTR 170B1 at University of Arizona taught by Daniel Marrone in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 98 views.


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Date Created: 08/31/16
  Astronomy:   170B1  T   he   Physical   Universe  Week   1   Aug   22­26    In­class   Notes  ~Chapter  1     ­  ight    ear    The   distant   lig  an  ravel   in     year   (10   trillion   kilometers)  ­Light  t ravels   at   a   finite   speed  ­The   further   that   you   see   into   the   distant,   the   further   in   the   past   you   are   looking.  Ex:   If   a   star   4   lightyears   away   were   to   explode   today,   we   would   know   about   it   in   4   years.  ­The  u  niverse   s   13.7   billion   yea  ld.  ~Chapter  2     ­The   Milky  W  ay,   it’s   where   we ive  ­  cliptic:    The   path   t un   traces   out   in   the   Shown  i  n  he   mage   below)  -  he   seasons:    The   tilt   of   the   E  xis   i  hat   makes  t he  easons  change.  ­The    arth’s   axis   is   tilted   23.5   degrees.  ­When   the   North   Pole   is   tilted   towards   the   sun   the   sun   shines   more  directly,   their   are   longer   and   hotter   days.   (summer).  ­  he   Moon    orbits   every   27.3   days  A    ycle   of   luna  hases   takes   9.5   ays  ­Relative   alignment   of   the   Earth,   Moon   and   Sun   determines   the  phases.  ­Synchronous   Rotation:   The   Moon   rotates   once   with   every   orbit  (that’s    hy    e   only   ever ee  one   side   f   the   moon).  ­The   phases   of   the   moon   are  shown   in   the   picture   to   the  right.  ­The   phases   of   the   moon   are  New   Moon,   Waxing   Crescent,  First   Quarter,   axing   Gibbous,  Full   Moon,   Waning   Gibbous,  Third   Quarter,   Waning  Crescent,   New   Moon.  ­  clipses:    hen   the   sun   r  moon   passes  t  hrough   each  other's   hadow,   it   makes   and  eclipse.  ­Lunar   eclipses   can   only   occur   when   the   moon   is   opposite   of   the   sun.   ­Lunar   eclipses   can   be   penumbral,   total   or   partial.  ­Solar   eclipses   only   occur   when   the   moon   is   on   the   same   side   of   the   Earth   as   the   sun.  ­Solar   eclipses   can   be   partial,   total   or   annular.  ­The   moon’s   orbit   is   tilted   5   degrees   which   is   why   we   don’t   have   eclipses   every   day.  ­Solar   and   Lunar   eclipse   image   shown  b   elow        Book  N   otes  ~Chapter  1     ­Galaxy   Clusters:   Groups   of   galaxies   with   many   large  members.  ­Superclusters:   Where   galaxies   and   galaxy   clusters   are   the  most  t ightly  p  acked.  ­Local   group:   Small   group   of   galaxies   (Milky   Way)  ­Earth’s   average   distance   from   the   sun   is   about   150   million  kilometers  ­Distances   within   our   solar   system   are   measured   using   AU  (astronomical   units)  ­The   Big   Bang:   The   point   where   the   universe   first   began   its   expansion.  ~Chapter  2     ­constellation:   A   region   of   the   sky   with   well   defined   borders  ­celestial   sphere:   The   greeks   thought   that   the   constellations   were   sitting   on   an   imaginary   celestial   sphere  that   surrounded   the  E  arth.  ­zenith:   The  p  oint   straight   bove   head.  ­Meridian:   Imaginary   half   circle   that   goes   from   the   Southern   end   of   the   horizon   to   the   Northern   end.    ­A.   Jackson               


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