Intro to Geography Notes Weeks 1,2,3!
Intro to Geography Notes Weeks 1,2,3! GR 1123
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This 19 page Class Notes was uploaded by Juliette R on Wednesday August 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GR 1123 at Mississippi State University taught by Alexandria Grimes in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 61 views. For similar materials see World Geography in Geography at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 08/31/16
GR 1123/04 World Regional Geography pg.1 08/17 What is Geography? Greek Origin +geo = earth +graph = art, drawing Study of the spatial distribution of social space, natural space Not chaotic in nature +natural influences +manmade 2 Conceptual Applications: +Physical space +Human space Relate both physical and natural world with human influence Human Geography Focuses on Culture Intangible things: religion, language, political systems, money Physical Geography Tangible things: weathering, climate, weather & weather systems, major landforms, continental ranges, local ecosystems How do we study geography? Maps Cartography: Process of making maps Large scale vs. Small scale? +depends on relation of pont and size of area covered on map 4 Essentials: 1. Title 2. Orientation 3. Scale Indicator 4. Lengend Other Features: +Border +Locator Map (inset) + Graphical Design +Map Credits +Visual Hierarchy +Purpose Concerns for S cale: +Geographic Research (subjective) *Ex: Concentration of wealth: Community Level, State Level? StudySoup Juliette Reid: Fall 2016 GR 1123/04 World Regional Geography pg.2 08/19 Remote Sensing: Gaining information about an object or phenomenon without making physical contact with it +Ex: satellites, Radar, Sonar Geographical Information Systems (GIS): Many applications: +elevation, hydrology, soil types, transportation,geology, ownership, site data, imagery All about spatial relationship, patterns, and trends +Both spatial and cultural Meteorology uses for GIS? +Climate, Tornado path/damage, Hurricanes, where to open businesses, Population and crime rate Geography of the World interaction of human society and the natural environment 12 Geographical Realms of the World combination of environmental, cultural, and organizational properties Global neighborhoods 3 Criteria for a Realm: 1. Physical: broad regionalization, natural and social functions 2. Functional interaction between human and environment Ex: farming, mining, etc. 3. Historical historical impact on humanity Ex: Europe and the Industrial Revolution What about Antarctica? No human interaction with environment 2 Realm examples of variety: 1. Monocentric: one country is influencing that realm the most 2. Polycentric: many countries are influencing that realm Regions: Subsets within a realm areas of uniformity North America: New England, Pacific Northwest, South, etc Defined by perception StudySoup Juliette Reid: Fall 2016 GR 1123/04 World Regional Geography pg.3 5 Criteria of a Region: 1. Area: physical presence on the Earth 2. Location: After exist, reference to region nearby a. latitude longitude 3. Homogeneity: Sameness: cultural, physical properties 4. Boundaries: neat lines to divide natural, manmade a. Mountains, islands, ocean 5. Special systems: towns, suburbs, City a. function/purpose The World is interconnected trade, globalization How has technology made the world smaller? Pony Express, Telegraph, telephone, computer / internet Understanding the natural landscapes ” twothirds of the world is covered by water.” How is physical landscape influenced by g eology? Geology helped estimate brakes and boundaries in realms plate tectonics: + Theory that supports continental drift hypothesis + developed by Alfred Wegener 1912 + Pangea supercontinent Movement of plates Divergent: moving apart +ex: Mississippi valley Convergent: collisions + ex: Ring of Fire volcano chain Transform: slide +San Andreas fault How does this control the landscape? Building: collisions, mountains, volcanoes, Island chains Destroying: Grand Canyon Climate: the longterm conditions of weather over a region summarized by averages average of weather over a region Climate and geography? Define where people live Subsistence politics and economics StudySoup Juliette Reid: Fall 2016 GR 1123/04 World Regional Geography pg.4 some regions are essentially defined by climate + Tundra, arid desert, tropics Latitude and longitude latitude + North and South + parallels + 0 to 90 degrees + lines never cross longitude + East and West + meridians + 0 to 180 degrees + Converse at poles Controls on climate: latitude + higher latitudes tend to be cooler ( less direct sunlight) + lower latitudes are warmer ( more direct sunlight) altitude + higher altitudes are usually cooler ( Rocky Mountains) + lower altitudes are warmer ( Death Valley) continentality + coastal areas tend to have moderate temperatures +Locations near Center of continent tend to have more extremes Boston is similar latitude of Emily to Wisconsin but one is cooler Climate and Earth's history glaciation: period of global cooling during which Continental ice sheets expand + change is short lines, topography, climate recedes: interglacial period Human populations 7.2 billion on 30% of planet's surface Urbanization population moves into urban areas taking place worldwide most predominant in eastern Asia + Dubai Deurbanization Population moving away from urban areas + crime, economy, jobs, taxes, climate, natural disasters +ex: Detroit StudySoup Juliette Reid: Fall 2016 GR 1123/04 World Regional Geography pg.5 Language: heart of culture 7000 languages worldwide 15 main language families IndoEuropean most widespread language type product of European colonization of the world in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries most business and trade is done in the English language StudySoup Juliette Reid: Fall 2016 GR 1123/04 World Regional Geography pg.6 08/22 What is A ssimilation? ”The process by which a person or a group’s language and or culture come to resemble those of another group.” Example: death of a culture, Indians and settlers Religion Second biggest determinant of culture Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism Political geography study of interaction of geographical area and political processes sovereignty “self rule” What is a state?+ 1. Politically Organized territory 2. administered by a sovereign government 3. recognized by the International Community Must also possess: +permanent resident population +organized economy +infrastructure: functioning internal circulatory system States and Nations Nation +All the citizens of a state + group of people with a strong linguistic, Assonet, religious, and cultural commonality +Example:Native Americans, Cherokee, Navajo, Quebec Nationstate + The country whose population possesses of substantial degree of cultural Homogeneity and unity + Example: Japan, most European countries Non Nationstate? +Group that has control over a territory within a country but is not a country itself + example:Vatican City, Taiwan Global economics/Economic Geography First second and third world countries divided after World War II first world: capitalist countries + Us / Western Europe + General prosperity and welldeveloped StudySoup Juliette Reid: Fall 2016 GR 1123/04 World Regional Geography pg.7 second world: socialistic countries + USSR / North Korea / Cuba + between prosperity and poverty third world: noncommunistic or capitalistic +Typically colonies + Africa, South America, Southeast Asia + non developed, poverty rampant North America Water areas and river deltas three major areas of drainage + Great Lakes, Mississippi River system, Great Basin longest river in North America + Missouri, Mississippi River system ( 2341 miles) Montana to the Gulf of Mexico largest lake + Lake Superior ( 31820 square miles) deepest lake + great Slave Lake ( 2010 feet deep) Northwest territory in Canada Geographic regions of North America 1. Coastal and Interior Lowlands a. Appalachians and Rockies b. area of plains and lowlands between eastern and western Mountains and the Atlantic coast c. constitutes bulk of continent d. most populated region e. largest area for natural resources i. Lumber, farming, maritime ( fishing and transport) 2. Canadian Shield a. area around Hudson Bay b. not a lot of farming ( no sediment) c. rich in minerals ( mining) d. iron, copper, diamonds, uranium 3. Atlantic Coastal Plain a. area of land at base of Appalachian Mountains to the coast b. broad, flat, plain, gently sloping to Ocean c. known as Piedmont Landscape: Downwarping West Coast is more tectonically active, East Coast is not West Coast is rising while the east coast is sinking difference and coastline + West Coast is Rocky or the east coast is Sandy with estuaries StudySoup Juliette Reid: Fall 2016 GR 1123/04 World Regional Geography pg.8 4. Mississippi River Valley and alluvial Valley a. Set by Ohio River, Tennessee River, Missouri River and dumps in the Gulf of Mexico b. Mississippi River i. covers 31 States and two Canadian provinces ii. the world's longest and 10th largest river system in the world c. Floodplain: Illinois to Louisiana i. Most important economic region in North America Ii. very fertile farmland Iii. cultural importance: Blues 5. Eastern mountains a. formed from Continental to Continental convergence in Pangea b. very old and eroded c. spans from Newfoundland to Alabama d. most Peaks less than 4000 feet ( Mount Mitchell 6600 feet) e. southern end has higher elevation 6. Western Plateau, mountains, valleys a. Plateau i. zone between Rocky and Sierra mountains ii. Colorado Plateau 7000 feet high iii. Uplift; rivers on Plateau drain into elevation below cutting Rock and sediment, creating Canyons b. Western mountains I. Sierra Nevada mountains ii coastal range iii Cascade Mountains: active volcanoes iv : Rocky Mountains( u.s. and Canada) V. coastal mountains( Canada) All have non active volcanoes EXCEPT the Cascade Mtns StudySoup Juliette Reid: Fall 2016 GR 1123/04 World Regional Geography pg.9 08/24 Video: Volcanism Mt St Helens Eruption ● Physical geography features: climate, effects of glaciation, lake, mountain range, Forrest, Raiders, animals, ecosystem ● Cascades ○ Southwest Washington and Oregon, Canada ● Native Americans called Mount Saint Helens Fire Mountain ● Richter scale ● Mount Rainier complacent attitude Behavior part of us culture ● May 18th 1980 8:32 a.m. eruptions begin ● 2 craters: 2 miles long and 1 mile long ● 5 more eruptions in 1980 ● 14 Mile High Cloud eruption reach ● Terrain change: half of the mountain gone, Wildlife gone, water polluted, ice melted, son covered by Ash, Transportation impact, campgrounds and houses obliterated, excavations and depopulation ● Cloud moved across the state and hours and moved across the Earth in a month ● Influenced terrain the most but also influenced climate ● North Side of the Mountain taken out StudySoup Juliette Reid: Fall 2016 GR 1123/04 World Regional Geography pg.10 08/26 Sierra Nevada mountains ➔ Located in California and Nevada ➔ steep rise and elevation on Eastern face and more gradual on Western ➔ not volcanic ➔ RainShadow effect: ◆ The Rockies ➔ One of the world's most massive mountain ranges ➔ extends from Central Mexico to Central Alaska approximately 3000 miles ➔ Colorado has 54 Peaks smaller than 14000 feet ➔ younger then Appalachians Cascades ➔ Northern California to Southern Canada ➔ Lahar: dense, fast flowing rivers of mud water and Ash ◆ the last lahar, Electron Mudflow, heard about five hundred years ago, sweeping through the Puyallup Valley, toppling trees of largest 3 meters in diameter ➔ Tectoniaclly active region ◆ Earthquakes and volcanic eruptions Coastal Ranges ➔ Most Westward, contiguous us range ➔ Los Angeles to Washington ➔ smaller Peaks( less than 4000 feet) ➔ formed from Transform Plate Boundary ◆ San Andreas Fault ➔ separated from Sierra Nevada mountains by the San Joaquin Basin StudySoup Juliette Reid: Fall 2016 GR 1123/04 World Regional Geography pg.11 Coastal Mountains ➔ Northern extension of Cascades in southern Canada ➔ separated from Canadian Rockies in the South by narrow plateau, merge is farther north ➔ Volcanic ➔ splits in Alaska ◆ Alaska range: Southern branch ◆ Brock's range: Northern branch ➔ Separated by the Yukon river Mountain peaks ● Mount Elbert 14440 feet second tallest peak in the lower 48 located in the Rockies ● Mount Whitney 14505 feet tallest peak in the lower 48 located in the Sierra Nevada mountains ● Mount Rainier 14411 feet active volcano located in the Cascades ● Mount Logan tallest peak in Canada and the second tallest in the North America located in the coastal mountains ● Mount Denali formerly known as Mount McKinley 20370 feet tallest peak in North America located in the Alaska range North American settlement ➔ San Salvador Island ◆ believed to be the first Contact of Europeans with North America ➔ Leif Erikson ◆ Recorded in Sagas ◆ Vikings sailors to Canada from Norway ◆ discovered Greenland ◆ Stone Slab land ◆ Markland ( Northern tip of Newfoundland) Vineland ● fish and grapes ➔ Greenland named so to attract people to go there LIES! NOT GREEN! ICE! Everywhere! Native Americans ➔ before Columbus 3 4 million natives ➔ after almost 90% died ◆ mainly of disease The Kennewick man ➔ One of the most complete ancient skeletons ever found ➔ 1996 Kennewick, Washington ➔ dated to approximately 7600 8300 years old ➔ claimed as an ancestor by Umatilla Tribe, as Allowed by NAGPRA StudySoup Juliette Reid: Fall 2016 GR 1123/04 World Regional Geography pg.12 ➔ Court battle lasted 9 years ➔ originally of Asian ancestry Continental glaciation ➔ Prehistoric migration of animals and people from Asia ➔ made possible by glacier melting through a land bridge from Asia to North America European settlement ( up to 1700) ➔ European dominated ◆ disease, culture ➔ dominated by English influences Spanish ➔ St. Augustine Florida ◆ oldest permanent settlement in North America ◆ Fort used to protect the shipping ◆ considered a weak settlement by Spanish crown ◆ acquired by the US in 1819 ➔ Rio Grande area ◆ Santa Fe 60 and 10 much more successful ◆ Lots of missions ◆ later became part of Mexico, 30000 Spaniards state ◆ annexed by the United States in 1848 French ➔ First settled in North Eastern Canada ◆ 1606 Port Royal Nova Scotia ◆ 1608 Quebec City ● still highly influenced by French culture ➔ settled along major water bodies ◆ Great Lakes: Detroit, Des Moines ◆ Mississippi River column New Orleans ➔ settlements based on fur trading ➔ dispute over territory and for rights led to war with England ( 1754 1763) ◆ French and Indian War ( British name) ◆ La Guerne de la Conquete (War of Conquest) (French name) ➔ French still influential ◆ Quebec and New Orleans Dutch ➔ Fort Nassau 1614 ◆ Nearby Albany, New York on Hudson River ◆ fur trade with Iroquois ◆ destroyed 1618 ➔ New Amsterdam 1625 ◆ southern tip of Manhattan StudySoup Juliette Reid: Fall 2016 GR 1123/04 World Regional Geography pg.13 ◆ walled city of 800 by 1664 ◆ English Fleet took over, became New York City ● named after Duke of York aka King James II of England England ➔ 13 colonies ◆ Divided into three “Cultural Hearths” ● New England colonies ( Boston area) ● Midland / middle colonies ( Philadelphia area) ● Southern / Chesapeake Bay ( Virginia and the South) ◆ Based on Lifestyles and economic worth ➔ New England cultural hearth ◆ Plymouth Colony 1620 ● poor, no education, low birth rate ◆ Massachusetts Bay Colony 1629 ● Boston 1630 ● High birthrate ● Puritans ● Later Shift in agriculture to manufacturing and shipping ➔ Midland colonies ◆ Pennsylvania 1681 ● liberal policies of immigration and religion ● mostly agriculture ◆ Philadelphia ● capital of the us at the time ● consider the American Revolution headquarters ● largest city at the time ● Declaration of Independence and Constitution were written in this city ➔ Southern colonies/ Chesapeake Bay ◆ Jamestown 1607 ● considered for location ● High death rate ◆ Migrate to Williamsburg Virginia ● grow tobacco > money $ ○ Labor = indentured servants & slaves from Africa and the Caribbean ◆ plantations and rural Society ● wealthy landowners and aristocrats ◆ Charleston South Carolina ● Social and economic influence ● attracted the wealthy and elite ● 2 times more tobacco export StudySoup Juliette Reid: Fall 2016 GR 1123/04 World Regional Geography pg.14 Organization, industrialization, and settlement frontiers ➔ 1783 1865 Land acquisition ◆ us gained independence in 1783 ◆ land acquisition 1780 1853 ◆ prior: areas east of Mississippi River ◆ Louisiana Purchase 1803 from France ◆ Gulf of Mexico and Florida 1819 from Spain ◆ Annex of Texas from Mexico 1845 ● previously known as the Republic of Texas that declared its independence in 1836 ◆ Oregon treaty 1846 from England ◆ Gaston purchase 1843 acquiring New Mexico and Arizona areas From Mexico ➔ by 1865… ◆ territory expanded 3 times, population in expanded 15x, economy expanded 20x, Urban population expanded 30X ◆ US has third largest economy in the world Behind England and France Public and private lands ➔ Homestead Act 1862 ◆ Lincoln encouraged migration to West ➔ most fertile land already occupied by natives ➔ Land Run 1893 ◆ Cherokee Indian land for hunting ◆ u.s. took control during Civil War of 65000 Acres and let over a hundred thousand people move on to the land ➔ requirements for the Homestead Act ◆ have 160 Acres ◆ lived on for 5 years ◆ build a house ◆ fee of $10 ( $38.10 today) Geography change ➔ Lumber, roads, agriculture ➔ displaced wildlife and native plants Conservation movement ➔ Mid to late 1800s to early 1900s ➔ Extermination of the American buffalo ➔ response to exploited resources ◆ Timber companies cut down trees without reforestation ◆ ranchers overgraze the land ◆ Mining companies unregulated StudySoup Juliette Reid: Fall 2016 GR 1123/04 World Regional Geography pg.15 ➔ created national parks, nature reserves, and respect for environment Environmental movement ➔ Elitist movement to protect the environment, animals, and Wildlife ➔ Teddy Roosevelt bear hunt ◆ headline the u.s. News ◆ Toy Shop to name stuffed bear Teddy Bear Industry and resources ( u.s. and Canada) ➔ 1870 manufacturing corridor ◆ Boston to Baltimore ➔ after 1870 ◆ expand to Midwest ( St Louis and Milwaukee) ➔ Advantages: cheap fuel, immigrant labor, concentrated Market, easy transportation ( Great Lakes and the st. Lawrence Seaway) ➔ expand to Midwest ◆ lots of wealth ➔ Rust Belt ( today) ◆ industry moved overseas ◆ factories abandoned ◆ impact people outside area North American Federal Trade Association (NAFTA) ➔ Canada Mexico and the United States ➔ made trade easier between countries ➔ elevated taxes, tariff to export ◆ Motor Vehicles, computers and Tech, agriculture ➔ protect intellectual property ➔ increase trade ◆ u.s. with Mexico by 100% ◆ u.s. with Canada by 110% Urbanisation styles ➔ Primary ◆ extraction of raw materials from nature ➔ Secondary ◆ manufacturing of raw materials into finished goods ● Lumber into furniture, steal into cars ➔ Tertiary ◆ service economy to support production and consumption ● banking, Retail, transportation StudySoup Juliette Reid: Fall 2016 GR 1123/04 World Regional Geography pg.16 Fisheries ➔ 90% comes from the ocean ◆ especially North Atlantic and North Pacific ➔ u.s. and Canada very important to the world seafood market ➔ Canada exports to us more than 50% ➔ overfishing problem ◆ can lead to Extinction Important Seafood ➔ Bering Sea ( Alaska) ◆ King Crab, halibut ➔ West Coast ( California to Oregon) ◆ Solomon, Dungeness crab,anchovy ➔ North Atlantic ◆ Cod, Lobster, oyster ➔ Gulf of Mexico ◆ red snapper, grouper, shrimp StudySoup Juliette Reid: Fall 2016 GR 1123/04 World Regional Geography pg.18 Urban geography ➔ Nucleated, nonagricultural settlement ➔ The most efficient habitation structure ➔ maximize efficiency of resources ◆ Time and energy ➔ Facilitates transportation and migration ➔ maximize social aspects Towns & Cities ➔ nucleated settlements ◆ buildings clustered around Center ➔ Central business district ◆ Starkville = Main Street ◆ Memphis = Union Avenue Suburbs ➔ Specialized segments of a large Urban complex ➔ 1. Residential ➔ 2. Industrial ➔ 3. Commercial ➔ Outly City ◆ boroughs of New York ● selfgoverning and independent towns within a city Urban Locations ➔ Reason for a city's existence is to: ◆ provide goods and services for itself and others ➔ where to build a city? ◆ 1. Water ◆ 2. Food (Located near fertile soil or Marine Resources) ◆ 3. Trade/Transportation Access ◆ 4. Protection ● 1,3,4 Still important today ● Food not as important because of transportation Cities move Inland ➔ Railroad ➔ Interstate System ◆ Routes with odd numbers run north to south ◆ Routes with even numbers run west to east ◆ N/S routes have lowest numbers in the west ◆ E/W routes have lowest numbers in the south Developed by Eisenhower in the 50s to connect the country StudySoup Juliette Reid: Fall 2016 GR 1123/04 World Regional Geography pg.19 Hawaii? ● Technically, no, but do have routes that travel the island , funded by the same program that built the continental interstate system ● H1, H2, H3 connect military facilities Alaska? ● No Mosaic Culture ➔ Clustered without intermingling much ➔ Immigration ➔ Less blending, more separation StudySoup Juliette Reid: Fall 2016
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