Spanish 101 Week 2 Notes
Spanish 101 Week 2 Notes Spanish 101
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jennifer Lawrence on Wednesday August 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Spanish 101 at Brenau University taught by Professor Colombini in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Spanish in Foreign Language at Brenau University.
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Date Created: 08/31/16
SH 101 Week 2 Notes Cultura Contextos Estructura 1 Los días de la semana (Days of the week) -The days of the week are not capitalized (in Spanish). -In Spanish-speaking countries, Monday is considered the first day of the week. -Days of the week: 1. lunes (Monday) 2. martes (Tuesday) 3. miércoles (Wednesday) 4. jueves (Thursday) 5. Viernes (Friday) 6. sábado (Saturday) 7. domingo (Sunday) - How to talk about the days of the week: -Hoy es… (Today is…) -Mañana es… (Tomorrow is…) -Ayer fue… (Yesterday was…) 2 Talking about schedules -Use el + [weekday] when an activity occurs on a specific day. -Example: El lunes tengo un examen. (On Monday I have an exam.) -Use los + [weekday] when an activity occurs regularly. -Example: Los lunes y miércoles tomo biología. (On Mondays and Wednesdays I take biology.) -The singular and plural forms for the days of the week except for sábados and domingos. -Example: ¿Cuántas clases tomas? (How many classes are you taking?) -Example: Tomo cuatro clases. (I’m taking four classes.) -Example: Mi especialización es en arqueología. (My major is archeology.) -Example: Este año, espero sacar buenas notas. (This year, I plan to make good grades.) 3 Culture -NAMES: -Maru is a shortened version of María Eugenia. -Juanjo is a shortened version of Juan José. -Maite is a shortened version of María Teresa. -Pedro Almodovar is an award-winning film director from Spain. He filmed Habla con ella and Volver among other famous films. -PLACES: -The Castillo de Chapultepec is one of Mexico City’s most historic landmarks. It was constructed in 1785 and it was home to many emperors and presidents. It has been open to the public since 1944. It is now the National Museum of History! -LA UNIVERSIDAD: -In many Spanish-speaking countries, students attend college in their home towns. Most students live with their parents, though some move away to stay in the city to attend school. -Many universities do not have a central bookstore. Students usually buy from designated commercial bookstores. 4 Pronunciación: Spanish vowels -Spanish vowels are never silent! They are always pronounced in a short, crisp way. (a) The letter a is pronounced like a short “ah.” (e ) The letter e is pronounced like a short “eh.” (i) The letter i is pronounced like the ee in “beet.” (o) The letter o is pronounced like the o in “tone.” (u) The letter u is pronounced like the oo in “room.” 5 Verbs: The present tense of -ar verbs -Verbs express action or state of being. -The infinitive is the base form of the verb. -The infinitive in Spanish is one word and can be recognized by its endings: -ar, -ir, or -er. Example of -ar verb: estudiar (to study) Example of -er verb: comer (to eat) Example of -ir verb: escribir (to write) -Conjugation chart for ESTUDIAR: Singular Plural Yo estudio (I study) Nosotros/as estudiamos (we study) Tú estudias (you study) fam. Vosotros/as estudiáis (you study) Ud./él/ella estudian (he/she studies)Uds./ellos/ella estudian (you/they form. study) -To conjugate: drop the infinitive endings (-ar, -er, -ir) then add to the stem endings. Common -ar verbs: Bailar (to dance) Estudiar (to study) Buscar (to look for) Explicar (to explain) Caminar (to walk) Habler (to talk, to speak) Cantar (to sing) LLegar (to arrive) Cenar (to have dinner) Llevar (to carry) Comprar (to buy) Mirar (to look (at), to watch) Contestar (to answer) Necesitar (+inf.) (to need) Conversar (to converse, to chat) Practicar (to practice) Desayunar (to have breakfast) Preguntar (to ask (a question)) Descansar (to rest) Preparar (to prepare) Desear (+inf.) (to desire, to wish) Regresar (to return) Dibujar (to draw) Terminar (to end, to finish) Enseñar (to teach) Tomar (to take, to drink) Escuchar (to listen (to)) Trabajar (to work) Esperear (+inf.) (to wait (for), to hope) Viajar (to travel) -The Spanish verbs buscar, escuchar, esperar, and mirar do not need to be followed with prepositions unless you are referring to a person. -Examples: Busco la tarea (I’m looking for the homework); Escucho la música (I’m listening to the music); Espero el autobus (I’m waiting for the bus); Miro la pizarra (I’m looking for the black board). -In Spanish, the simple present tense can be used in all three cases. Paco works in the cafeteria. -Example: Paco trabaja en la cafetería. Paco is working in the cafeteria. Paco does work in the -When two verbs are used together (with no change in subject) the second verb is usually in the infinitive form. -Example: Alicia no desea bailar ahora. (Alicia does not want to dance right now.) -The subject pronoun is often omitted because the verb endings indicate who the subject is. 6 The verb GUSTAR -Expresses likes and dislikes -Gustar is irregular -Can express likes and dislikes by using: (no) me gusta +el/la… (for singular). For plural: use (no) me gutsan +los/las. -You can use a mí, but never yo. Example: A mí me gustan las artes. (I like the arts.) -To ask a person about their likes and dislikes, use te instead of me. -You can use a ti for emphasis, but not tú. Example: ¿Te gusta la geografía? (Do you like geography?) -You can also use nos, le, and las to talk about other people. -Examples: Nos gusta dibujar. No le gusta trabajar. Les gusta el arte. -Use the construction a+[name/pronoun] to clarify who you are referring to (but it isn’t always necessary to use). -The Spanish no means no and not. I negative answers to a question, you will use no twice. -Example: ¿No, no estudio geografía. 7 Forming questions in Spanish -There are three basic ways to ask a question: 1. Raise the pitch of your voice at the end of the sentence. 2. Invert the order of the subject and verb. (You could also place the subject at the end of the sentence.) -Example: Carlota regresa a las seis. ¿Regresa a la seis Carlota? 3. Add tags such as ¿no? or ¿verdad? at the end of the sentence. -Use ¿ [and sentence here]? -¿Verdad? is used for negative sentences. Interrogative word: ¿Adónde? (Where (to)?) ¿Porqué? (Why?) ¿Cómo? (How?) ¿Qué? (What/which?) ¿Cuál?, Cuáles? (Which/which ones?) ¿Quién? (Who?) ¿Cuándo? (When?) ¿Quiénes? (Who? Plural) ¿Cuánto/a? (How much?) ¿ Cuántos/as? (How many?) ¿De dónde? (From where?) ¿ Dónde? (Where?) -When using interrogative words in questions, the pitch falls at the end of the statement! 8 The present tense of ESTAR -Estar is irregular. Singular Plural Yo estoy Nosotros/as estamos Tú estás Vosotros/as estáis Ud./él/ ella está Uds./ellos/ellas están Use estar for: Use ser for: -location -identity -health -occupation -well-being -origin -telling time Prepositions to use with estar: -al lado de (next to; beside) -a la derecho de (to the right of) -al la izquierda de (to the next of) -detrás de (behind) -allá (over there) -en (in; on) -allí (there) -encima de (on top of) -cerca de (near) -entre (between; among) -delante de (in front of) -lejos de (far from) -con (with) -sin (without) -debajo de (below) -sobre (on; over) 9 Numbers 31 and higher 31 treinta y uno 40 cuarenta 300 trescientos/as 2.000 dos mil 32 treinta y dos 50 cincuenta 400 cuatrocientos/as 5.000 cinco mil 33 treinta y tres 60 sesenta 500 quinientos/as 100.000 cien mil 34 treinta y cuatro 70 setenta 600 seiscientos/as 200.000 doscientos/as mil 35 treinta y cinco 80 ochenta 700 setecientos/as 36 treinta y seis 90 noventa 800 ochocientos/as 550.000 quinientos/as cincuenta mil 37 treinta y siete 100 cien, ciento 900 novecientos/as 1.000.00 un millón (de) 38 treinta y ocho 101 ciento uno 1.000 mil 8.000.000ocho millones (de) 39 treinta y nueve 200 doscientos/as 1.100 mil cien -With numbers that end in uno (31, 41, etc.), uno becomes un before a masculine noun and una before a feminine noun. -Cien is used before nouns and in counting. -Un, una, and uno are not used before cien. -Use cientos to say hundreds. -Numbers 200-999 agree in gender with the nouns they modify. -Mil can mean a thousand and one thousands. 10 Nice to Knows: -The verb HAY and the expression ¡AY! are pronounced the same. -Use la casa to express the house but en casa to express at home. -(@) is arroba (at). - (.) is punto (dot). Example: Es a-Smith-arroba-pe-elle-punto-e-de-u. (email@example.com)
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