New Colonies, Slavery, and Maturation of Virginia
New Colonies, Slavery, and Maturation of Virginia 1063
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Imelda Williams on Wednesday August 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1063 at Mississippi State University taught by Professer Hersey in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 130 views. For similar materials see Early U.S. History in History at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 08/31/16
Week of September 5 : New Colonies, Slavery, and the Maturation of Virginia 1063 Online Reader documents: 24, 25, 28, 31, 32, 33, 34, 37, 38, 81, 82 Wednesday September 7 Lecture Notes The Establishment of the British Colonies Key Question: How did the experiences of the first New England colonies compare with that of Jamestown? Indentured Servants were promised land once they had paid off their debts through manual labor Headright System: British freemen that came to the New World were given 100 acres of land plus more land per servant he brought with him; this practice was founded by Edwin Sandys, head of the Virginia Company Sandys realizes that people will not migrate towards colonies that are run in a military fashion so he comes up with the idea of mini colonies that are self governed by representatives elected by the people to the House of Bourgeois. Virginia voted their governor to be George Yeardley. This is the earliest trace of representative government in the New World. Because Virginia consisted of mainly young men, England shipped over marriageable women to reproduce in the colony. The Irony of 1619 1619 is where the first traces of representative government is found in the New World. 1619 is also when the first 20 African slaves are introduced to the British colonies by the Dutch, but the image of slavery as we know it does not emerge for over another 50 years. The marriage of John Rolfe and Pocahontas kept harmonious relations between the local Indians and the settlers but after the death of Pocahontas in 1617 and her father, who was the chief of the Powhatans, died in 1618 and was succeeded by his brother Opchanacanough, harmonious relations went down the drain. Opchanacanough led an attack on the British settlers in 1622. 1/3 of the settlers were killed. The colony survives but the Virginia Company does not survive. Week of September 5 : New Colonies, Slavery, and the Maturation of Virginia 1063 Online Reader documents: 24, 25, 28, 31, 32, 33, 34, 37, 38, 81, 82 Puritan New England Plymouth was the first Puritan colony established by a charter granted by the reigning king at the time, which was James I. The Massachusetts Bay Colony came shortly after under the reign of Charles I. The motivation of Jamestown, the colony in Virginia, was tobacco and money. In contrast, the motivation of the Puritan colonies of Plymouth and Massachusetts was religious freedom for themselves but not religious tolerance for others. Jamestown’s population consisted mainly of young males. New England had older, equally divided family units among their population. The Puritans were highly literate, educated, and skilled crafters and artisans. Most of the settlers in Puritan New England came all at once, during the Great Migration from England. The Chesapeake, where Puritan New England was settled, was healthier to live in. The Puritans put strict emphasis on biblical theology and education which contributes to why the majority of their population was so educated. When Charles I becomes king in 1625, he begins the execution of Puritans, sparking the Great Migration in 1629 Under Elizabeth I and James I, both whom were Protestant, puritanism was not preferred but they did not go to the extremes of execution. Elizabeth and James were in favor of Protestant unity. The Puritans were being prosecuted in England up until 1642 because they did not want to adhere to Catholic practices nor were English monarchs granting them religious tolerance, which coincides with the English Civil War led by Oliver Cromwell ending the Great Migration. They first moved to the Netherlands but the Puritans feared that the Dutch were having too much of a negative influence on their children so they proceeded to the Chesapeake. Why did the Puritans Choose America? The Puritans wanted to promote Puritan Christianity. Week of September 5 : New Colonies, Slavery, and the Maturation of Virginia 1063 Online Reader documents: 24, 25, 28, 31, 32, 33, 34, 37, 38, 81, 82 The Puritans wanted the freedom to govern themselves, with the combination of church and state and create the “city on a hill” they envisioned so they created a covenant with God. The Puritans believed that all things worldly was evil and that they should separate themselves from the influences from the world. Puritan “City on a Hill” Biblical Theology To the Puritans, God only spoke through the Bible. This was called immediate revelation. They favored education and church attendance, for they felt education was obtained through the church. The Puritans think that they cannot trust their own spiritual instincts. They believe that men are spiritually dead and it is evident through God’s wrath. People could not be admitted church members if they did not write their convergence experience and submit it to be approved by the church. Indulges: buying your way into heaven by paying the highly ranked members of the church They were enraged by indulges. Puritans also believed in: Individual responsibility Covenants Creating holy commonwealths Allowing churches to make their own decisions and not dictating what they can and cannot do Exiling religious dissenters Thomas Hooker was a minister that felt that the Puritans should have more lenient standards within the colony The Puritans exiled him and he founded Connecticut, becoming a place for religious dissenters who were executed from the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Roger Sherman was trying to promote religious tolerance in the Massachusetts Bay Colony and he too was exiled. He founded Rhode Island. Week of September 5 : New Colonies, Slavery, and the Maturation of Virginia 1063 Online Reader documents: 24, 25, 28, 31, 32, 33, 34, 37, 38, 81, 82 Anne Hutchinson was exiled to Rhode Island in 1637 for saying that God spoke to her and questioning the theology of the Puritan Church. Making a New England 16071608 and 16091610 were the hardest winters in Jamestown. The Puritans were tightly organized and tightly governed. When the Puritans arrived, they were all assigned a town and an occupation. The size of the land used to establish a town would depend on the number of families living in the town. Each town sent someone as a representative to the general assembly each year to discuss when to plant, when to herd livestock, fencing and other concerns, following the common model of selfgoverning to minimize risk. Every male who was the head of a household was given land. They copied the Indian style of planting. There was only one plow in the Plymouth colony that all the farmers shared. Lots of orchards were planted which later became important to their economy and livestock was herded. Honey bees were imported from England. The Indians called honey bees “English flies.” There was a short growing season, and the soil was thin but the crops grown in the soil contributed to the population explosion. English gets their food through the trees grown in the New England. A downside of the winter was the burning of lots of firewood, which later led to the regulation of cutting trees down. A colonist in the New World had more access to firewood than the king of England.
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