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PSY 270, Chapter 1 Notes

by: Samantha Grissom

PSY 270, Chapter 1 Notes PSY 270

Samantha Grissom
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About this Document

These notes cover what we discussed during our first class, including theories, definitions, and examples.
Child Psychology
Class Notes
Child, development, Theory, research, correlation




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Grissom on Wednesday August 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 270 at University of Southern Mississippi taught by Staff in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 66 views. For similar materials see Child Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Southern Mississippi.

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Date Created: 08/31/16
Definitions Examples Important Information PSY 270 Child Psychology Chapter 1 Let’s Talk about History! How was Child Development seen back in the day? History of Child Development: 1) Ancient Times/Middle ages thought children were born evil until they reached 7  years old. At 7, the child reaches the “age of reason.” 2) The Reformation introduced the Christian idea that children were born with  “original sin.” 3) The Enlightenment period included John Locke, who introduced Tabula Rasa.  This idea stated that children were blank pages and that their development was  influenced by their environment and experiences. At this time, Rousseau also  introduced the idea of Nobel Savages, which contradicts the Ancient Times and  Reformation ideas. Nobel Savages meant that children were born innately good  and moral. Pioneers of the Field: 1) Charles Darwin (1809­1882) ­ Wrote a biography about his son’s life as he grew and developed 2) G. Stanley Hall (1844­1924) ­ Made child development an academic discipline st ­ 1  to use the questionnaire method on children 3) Alfred Binet (1857­1911) ­ First to make a standardized intelligence test and use it on children Now we have our history, how has the Child Development field developed? Through theories. Theories of Development: 1) Psychoanalytic  ­ Sigmund Freud (1856­1939) ­ Personality and behavior are governed by unconscious forces ­ 3 parts of the unconscious: a) Id­ the irrational part focused on basic drives; also called the pleasure  principle b) Ego­ the rational part focused on restraining the id’s rashness; also  called the reality principle c) Superego­ the conscience focused on right and wrong ­ Focused on a sequence of stages believed to depict a child’s behavior in  development  a) Oral (birth – 1 year) b) Anal c) Phallic d) Latency e) Genital  2) Behavioral/Learning ­ John Watson ­ Agrees with the ideas of stages but believes behavior is observable and  influenced by a child’s environment 3) Cognitive ­ Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory a) States that learning alters mental representation of the environment  and doesn’t require reinforcement b) Believes that behavior is learned through imitation ­ Piaget’s Cognitive­Developmental Theory a) Focused on mental processes­ how thinking, logic, and problem  solving develop b) Agrees with the idea of development in stages, but adds that children  create their own environment, which shapes their learning c) Use schemes, assimilation, and accommodation ­ Information Processing Theory a) Focuses on how an individual receives, stores, and recalls information  used for problem solving 4) Biological ­ Biological Perspective Theory a) Focuses on development of physical characteristics and how behaviors can be affected by a person’s biological makeup b) Uses ethology­ study of genetically determined survival behavior  believed to have evolved through natural selection Ex) Geese born to see Konrad Lorenz and looking to him as a mother  figure 5) Ecological ­ Bronfenbrenner’s Bioecological Theory a) Social interaction is intertwining b) Use of a complex net of relationships to depict how specific  relationships (primary, secondary, etc) affect an individual 6) Sociocultural ­ Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory  a) Focuses on influences from social interaction and culture, purposeful  acts, self­identity, and healthy development. b) Also includes that children grow in stages adds the idea of “8 crises”  and finding balances between conflicts of certain stages. ­ Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory a) Focuses on social influences on a child and his/her development  (nurture) b) States that social interaction between members of a certain culture  affect an individual’s development of cognitive functions So where are we now? What have we taken from those theories? Ages and Stages of Child Development: 1) Prenatal period (conception ­ birth) 2) Infancy (birth ­ 2 years) 3) Preschool period (3 years ­ 5 years) 4) Middle childhood (6 years – 12 years) 5) Adolescence (12 years – 20 years) Dimensions of Development: 1) Physical ­ bodily changes as the child grows/develops ­ health/illness 2)  Cognitive ­ learning, memory, and language development 3)  Social/Emotional ­ forming relationships ­ development of personality traits Controversies in Child Development: 1) Continuous vs. Discontinuous change  ­ Whether a child’s development occurs in gradual steps or distinct steps  2) Nature vs. Nurture ­ Whether a child is influenced by their genetics or their environment Types of Influences: 1) Cohort­ events that have similar influences on a group of people all born around the  same time (they are all the same age, affected by similar things) 2) Normative­ events that occur in a similar way in some type of group (they are all  different ages but still affected by the same thing) How do people study this development? Research Methods: 1) The scientific method a) Ask a question b) Form a hypothesis c) Begin testing hypothesis d) Draw conclusions from testing e) Portray testing results (usually through publishing) 2) Correlation Research ­ Looking for a relationship between two factors (can be positive or negative) ­ Positive correlation­ both factors are moving in the same direction ­ Negative correlation­ factors are moving in different directions ­ Zero correlation­ there’s no way to relate the factors ­ Correlation does NOT equal causation Ex) The number of drownings correlates with the number of movies that  Nicolas Cage stars in. The most reasonable answer is that Cage didn’t cause  people to drown (unless people just really hate Nicolas Cage) ­ Types of correlation studies: a) Naturalistic observation­ observing the setting objectively and without  interference b) Case study­ study of one person c) Survey research­ study of multiple people through a questionnaire  (most common) 3) Experimental research ­ Looking for casual relationships between factors ­ Consists of an independent variable (manipulated) and a dependent variable  (studied/measured) ­ Experimental group­ subjects who receive treatment or medication ­ Control group­ subjects who receive no treatment or a placebo ­ Random assignment­ choosing subjects at random to ensure that there are  fewer conflicting variables Types of research designs: 1)  Longitudinal­ a group of subjects are tested and measured over a period of time/as  they grow ­ Time consuming 2) Cross­sectional­ children of different ages are tested and measured at one time ­ Many variables are present 3) Cross­sequential­ the combination of longitudinal and cross­sectional research  designs; measuring children of different ages over a period of time/as they grow ­ More subjects, more variables, and more time consuming Ethics to be considered when testing: 1) Freedom from harm 2) Informed consent 3) Use of deception 4) Freedom to withdraw 5) Maintenance of privacy


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