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Chapter 1- Introduction to Chemistry Notes

by: Clare Flattery

Chapter 1- Introduction to Chemistry Notes CHM-110

Marketplace > Iowa Central Community College > Science > CHM-110 > Chapter 1 Introduction to Chemistry Notes
Clare Flattery
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Hey Guys! I just thought I'd share a few notes from the Intro to Chemistry class from Chapter 1! Really focus on the definitions are the rules of Significant Figures because that will for sure help...
Introduction to Chemistry
Krista Leigh
Class Notes
General Chemistry, Chemistry, #Chapter1




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Clare Flattery on Wednesday August 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHM-110 at Iowa Central Community College taught by Krista Leigh in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Chemistry in Science at Iowa Central Community College.


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Date Created: 08/31/16
Intro to Chemistry Chapter 1 Chemistry: The study of matter and energy and the changes they undergo. Anything that has mass and occupies volume (space). States of Matter: Solid- Has a definite volume and a definite shape. A solid’s particles are spaced tightly together. Liquid- Has a definite volume and an indefinite shape. A liquid’s particles are more spaced out and can slide past one another. Gas - Has an indefinite volume and an indefinite shape. Gas particles are greatly spaced and move freely around. Plasma- the 4th state of matter. What stars are made up of. Properties of Matter: Physical properties- measured and observed with the senses without changing the identity of the matter. Physical change- change of physical property without the identity of the matter. ie) boiling point (bp), melting point (mp), solubility, color and odor. Chemical change- [chm rxn] is when an old substance is destroyed and changed into a new substance. (Extremely difficult to change back). ie) Statue of Liberty, bread and rust Chemical properties- ability to undergo chemical change. Determines how a substance can be changed into a new substance. Matter: 1. Pure substance- cannot be broken down by physical change. Element-a pure substance that cannot be broke down into simpler substances. ie) H, C, Na Compound- a pure substance formed by joining two or more elements. (A compound can be broken down through a chemical change to resort back into elements). ie) NaCl, H2O 2. Mixture- two or more pure substances. Homogenous mixture- has a uniform composition throughout a sample. ie) salt water Heterogenous mixture- does not have a uniform composition throughout a sample. ie) chocolate chip cookie Measurement: Chemistry is: qualitative (descriptive) quantitative (measurement = number to unit) Intro to Chemistry 
 Basic Metric Units: length - meter (m) mass - grams (g) Not Weight! volume- liter (L) time- second (s) PRACTICE THE METRIC SYSTEM!! Metric Units: Mega- (M) = Million = 1,000,000. Kilo- (K) = Thousand = 1,000. Deci- (d) = Tenth = 0.1 Centi- (c) = Hundredth = 0.01 Milli- (m) = Thousandth = 0.001 Micro- (μ) = Millionth = 0.000001 Nano- (n) = Billionth = 0.000000001 Temperature: measurement of the intensity of heat (temperature is not the same as heat) Old Rhyme to Remember how Celsius works: -30s are hot, 20s are nice, 10s are cold, 0 is ice. Kelvin (K)- K-> C + 273 In Kelvin 0 = absolute zero- the complete absence of heat. Density: a physical property that relates a substance’s mass to its volume. “How heavy it is for its size” D= m/v Significant Figures [Sig Figs]: Exact numbers- counting or definition (12in. = 1 ft) Inexact numbers- found by observation or measurement. Digital readout- writing out all the decimal places that are shown. Manuel readout- reporting 1 more decimal place than the tick marks show. (An estimation) Intro to Chemistry Rules for determining Sig Figs: 0. Sig Fig for inexact numbers only! ie) when exact either write ∞, 0 or “exact number” 1. Any non-zero digit is significant ie) 1.823457 has 7 sig figs 2. Captive zeros always count! ie) 101 km has 3 sig figs 3. Zeros to the left of the 1st non-zero never count ie) 0.016 cm has only 2 sig figs 4. Trailing zeros count IF the decimal point is shown ie) 0.304 has 3 sig figs but 100g has only 1 sig fig


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