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Lecture 1 Scientific Method

by: Jennifer Nguyen

Lecture 1 Scientific Method PSYC 4370

Jennifer Nguyen

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About this Document

These are going to be on the first exam.
Behavioral Statistics
Mark Tengler
Class Notes
scientific method
25 ?




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jennifer Nguyen on Wednesday August 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 4370 at University of Houston Clear Lake taught by Mark Tengler in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Behavioral Statistics in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Houston Clear Lake.

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Date Created: 08/31/16
Lecture 1- Scientific Method Epistemology: Branch of philosophy that studies how we know what we know (How do we get the knowledge that we have). Notices that there are 5 different ways of getting information. 5 different ways of knowing truths: 1. Tradition (family of origin issue)-  Information that has been passed down from family, culture, even neighborhood unconsciously.  Includes values, how we handle emotions, and acceptable/unacceptable behaviors.  Some traditions work and some don’t as time passes so as we grow up we should weed out the bad and keep the good. 2. Authority-  Everyone is dependent upon authority  Some are reliable while others aren’t (Authorities have abused their authority)  But the authority is only as good as the knowledge that they have and how they communicate it for others to understand.  What if the authority doesn’t know that they don’t know? (ex. New discovery contradicting the facts made previously) 3. Logical Reasoning-  Rationally think through facts yourself to come to a conclusion.  Can’t depend on it solely since it is very easy to rationalize.  Things aren’t always rational! 4. Intuition-  Gut feeling  Something you feel which can’t be observable, measurable, or repeatable  Only works well if a person has a stable upbringing. Coming from an unstable upbringing can push you towards dysfunctionalism. 5. Scientific Method- Science rejects anything subjective because it can’t be tested and can’t deal with one- time events. Observable- i. 5 senses (sight, smell, touch, hear, taste) with or without technology ii. Making something subjective to objective Measurable- Attaching numbers to the observations i. Discrete (Whole numbers) 1. Nominal (Categorical) – Yes or No; True or False (Ex. Favorite season) 2. Ordinal (Rank) – Highest to lowest; tallest to shortest (Ex. Pain level) a. Relative numbering system - The intervals between each number isn’t equal ii. Continuous (Has decimals and such) 1. Interval/ratio – The intervals between each number is equal (equal interval scale) which have to use technology such as a ruler. Usually decide on the technology by the budget (Ex. X-ray test is cheaper than CT scan). Can’t measure emotions. Example: How to measure depression. o Nominal- Do you feel depressed? o Ordinal- On a scale of 1 to 10, how depressed do you feel? o Interval/ratio- Psychological test (beck's depression scale) Repeatable- To verify Lecture 1- Scientific Method One problem about science is that you never come to an absolute knowledge of anything! Logical Progression in science: 1. Observe and measure 2. Describe and predict 3. Cause and effect Correlational/Non- experimental 4. Theory Experiment - Repeats to test al theory to see how it holds up in reality Cause- Independent variable Effect- Dependent variable (control) Sample- Represents the population in research so that it can be applicable in the whole population. Population is very expensive to study Population Inferential Statistics Sample Research level: Descriptive Statistics


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