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Chapter 17: Geologic Time

by: Sharmond Tanner

Chapter 17: Geologic Time GEOL 106

Sharmond Tanner
University of Louisiana at Lafayette
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About this Document

Week 1 notes on geologic time that covers from Relative dating to Principle of fossil succession.
Earth History
Prof. Boudreaux
Class Notes




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Popular in Geology (GEOL)

This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sharmond Tanner on Wednesday August 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOL 106 at University of Louisiana at Lafayette taught by Prof. Boudreaux in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Earth History in Geology (GEOL) at University of Louisiana at Lafayette.

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Date Created: 08/31/16
Chapter 17: Geologic Time Week 1 How is Geologic time measured?  Relative dating – Place geologic events in sequential order. Does not tell how long an event will last  Absolute dating – Determines the specific date usually in years.  Radiometric dating - Any method of determining the age of earth materials or objects of organic origin based on measurement of either short-lived radioactive elements Relative Dating Ex. The Grand Canyon - The newest is on the top and oldest on the bottom Geologic Time Scale - Cenozoic, Mesozoic, Paleozoic, and Precambrian Early concepts of geologic time and age of Earth - Scientific Dating o Earth’s cooling rate > 75,000 Years Old o Deposition of sediment: 1 million to 2 Billion years’ old o Ocean Salinity: 90 million years’ old Why are Hutton contributions to Geology important? - James Hutton (1726 – 1797) o Founder of modern geology o Uniformitarianism – Look at things today and assume that they were the same in the past Ex. Mud cracks - Lord Kelvin (1824 - 1907) o How long would it take for a molten Earth to cool off?  Between 20 and 400 years o Earth is “young” o Not enough time for evolution, uniformitarianism What are relative dating methods? - Principle of superposition o any undisturbed sequence of rocks deposited in layers, the youngest layer is on top and the oldest on bottom - Principle of original horizontality o layers of sediment are originally deposited horizontally under the action of gravity - Principle of lateral continuity o layers of sediment initially extend laterally in all directions; in other words, they are laterally continuous - Principle of cross cutting relation o states that an igneous intrusion is always younger than the rock it cuts across - Principle of inclusion o states that with sedimentary rocks, if inclusions are found in a formation, then the inclusions must be older than the formation that contains them. - Principle of fossil succession o Fossil organisms succeed one another in a definite and determinable order, and therefore any time period can be recognized by its fossil content. Nicholas Steno (1769-1832) - Created principle of superposition Charles Lyell (1769-1832) - Principle of geology o Championed Hutton’s uniformitarianism


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