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A&P1 Chapter 1 Intro to the Human Body Part A

by: LaQuaila Cooper

A&P1 Chapter 1 Intro to the Human Body Part A BIOL 2457

Marketplace > University of Texas at Arlington > Biological Sciences > BIOL 2457 > A P1 Chapter 1 Intro to the Human Body Part A
LaQuaila Cooper
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This chapter defines anatomy and physiology, covers the organization levels, and systems of the human body, defines positive and negative feedback along with homeostasis.
Xavier G Aranda
Class Notes
Anatomy& Physiology





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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by LaQuaila Cooper on Thursday September 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2457 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Xavier G Aranda in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY I in Biological Sciences at University of Texas at Arlington.


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Date Created: 09/01/16
Topic/Objective: Name: La’Quaila Cooper Chapter 1 Part A Class/Period: A&P1 The Human Body: An Orientation Date: August 31, 2016 Essential Question: How does the human body work? Questions: Notes: The study of the structure of body parts and their relationships to What is Anatomy? one another What is the The study of the function of body parts and how they work definition of together to perform tasks Physiology? Topics of Anatomy 1)Macroscopic- study of large, visible structures  Regional- all body parts in a specific area  System- one system (skeletal, etc.)  Surface- internal structures and relation to outer skin (visible veins) 2)Microscopic- structures too small to be seen by eye  Cytology-cells  Histology- tissues 3)Developmental- anatomical and physiological growth throughout life  Embryology- before birth Subdivisions of -Organ systems Physiology -Cellular and Molecular levels Principle of Complementarity of Structure and Function Function depends on structure and vice versa Structural Organization of ChemicalCellularTissueOrganOrgan SystemOrganism AtomsMoleulesOrganelleSmooth Muscle CellSmooth Muscle TissueConnective Tissue Epithelial TissueOrgan System The Body (cardiovascular)Organism  Boundaries: Separation of internal and external environment Requirements for Plasma membrane separate cells, Skin separate organs from outer Life environment  Movement: muscular system Body parts- skeletal muscle Substances- cardiac and smooth muscles  Responsiveness: sense and response to stimuli Withdrawal-injury Breathing rates due to activity  Digestion: breakdown of food, absorption of molecules  Metabolism: chemical reactions in body cells Catabolism and Anabolism  Excretion: removal of waste Urea, Carbon Dioxide, Feces  Reproduction: Cellular (division for growth/repair) and Organismal (offspring)  Growth Questions: Notes: Humans are multicellular and our organ systems service those Important Fact cells There are 11 organ systems that make up an organism such as the Organ Systems human body A. Integumentary- external body covering (skin) protecting deeper organs (hair, skin, nails) B. Skeletal- protects and supports body organs, framework for muscle movement (bones an joints) C. Muscular- movement, posture, stability, heat production D. Nervous System- responds to internal and external changes by activating glands and muscles (brain, spinal cord, nerves) E. Endocrine System- secrete hormones, growth, reproduction, and nutrient use (Thyroid, Pineal, Adrenal and Pituitary Glands, Thymus, Pancreas, Ovaries, Testes) F. Cardiovascular- transports blood, oxygen, CO2, nutrients, and wastes (heart, blood vessels) G. Immune/Lymphatic System- fights against foreign substances using white blood cells (lymphocytes) (red bone marrow, thymus, lymphatic vessels, thoracic duct, spleen, lymph nodes) H. Respiratory- take in oxygen and release carbon dioxide through the nasal cavity (nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, lung, bronchus I. Digestive- breakdown food (oral cavity, esophagus, liver, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, anus) J. Urinary- remove nitrogenous waste (kidney, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra) K. Male Reproductive System- production of offspring from the testes (Penis, Testes, Scrotum, Prostate, Ductus, Deferens) L. Female Reproductive System- production of offspring through ovaries (mammary glands in breast, ovary, uterus, vagina, uterine tube)  Nutrients- chemicals for energy and cell buildings -carbs (, proteins, fats, minerals and vitamins Survival Needs  Oxygen- release of energy from foods  Water- needed for chemical reactions (fluid base for intake and outtake of substances)  Normal Body Temperature: > or < 37* C chemical reactions affected  Appropriate Atmospheric Pressure: needed for breathing and gas exchange (oxygen in and CO2 out through nasal cavities) Stability of internal despite outside environment (sort of like Homeostasis adaptation) -dynamic equilibrium -maintained by organ systems working together Homeostatic Controls -Nervous and Endocrine System helps maintenance Negative Feedback -Includes variables that steadily change (blood sugar and volume, body temp.)  Includes receptor, control center, and effector Positive Feedback Receptor- (sensor) input, response to stimuli Control Center- (receives input) point of maintenance, determines response Homeostatic Effector- (receives output) response, positive/negative feedback -response reduces stimulus, variable change opp. Direction (reg. of body temp.) Stimulusreceptorinput (afferent)Control centeroutput (efferent)EffectorResponse -response enhances stimulus, amplifying effect, variable same direction (labor contractions, platelet plug) -risk of disease -aging Imbalance -negative and positive feedback clash causing heart failure Flow chart vocabulary body systems body parts included in the systems Summary: Anatomy and Physiology is the study of the human body and its functions. The human body has 11 systems, including the reproductive system that works together to maintain homeostasis. Our homeostasis is dependent upon our survival needs of the environment and our internal bodies.


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