Introduction to Human Anatomy
Introduction to Human Anatomy BIO 2440
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katelyn Farris on Thursday September 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 2440 at William Carey University taught by Mr. Griffis in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy I in Biology at William Carey University.
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Date Created: 09/01/16
Introduction to Anatomy: -Anatomy: the study of the structure of the body Types: Gross, Systemic, Regional Levels of Structural Organization -Atoms -Molecules -Cells—smallest unit of life -Tissues—a group of similar cells that are put together to perform a function -Organs -Organ System -Organism Characteristics of life -Organization and Boundaries -Metabolism -Digestion and excretion -Response to stimuli -Movement -Growth -Reproduction Homeostasis -the ability of the body to keep things at certain levels -“Steady State” -Examples: -Temperature -Fluid levels -Fluid pH -Blood pressure -Blood glucose -Calcium levels -Electrolyte balance -Done by negative biofeedback *this works like a thermostat in that if levels of something are low then production of that will begin and build it up until it is back to normal levels* Language of Anatomy -Directional Terms: -Anatomical Position: standing -Proximal: closer to the point of face forward, feet forward, attachment to the body palms forward -Distal: farther from the point of -Superior: above attachment to the body -Inferior: below -Medial: toward the midline -Anterior (ventral): front -Lateral: toward the side -Posterior (dorsal): back -Superficial: toward the surface -Cephalic: towards the head -Deep: away from the surface -Caudal: towards the tail -Regional Terms: -Cephalic: toward the head -Cervical: toward the neck -Thoracic: chest -Abdominal: Abdomen -Pelvic: between the hips -Pubic: anterior part of the pelvis -Axillary: armpit -Brachial: upper arm -Lumbar: lower back -Gluteal: Rump or Butt -Digital: Fingers and toes -Patellar: front of knee -Popliteal: back of knee -Plantar: bottom of foot Body Planes -Sagittal Plane: cuts the body in half (left and right) -Transverse (cross cut): cuts body in half (top and bottom) -Frontal (coronal): cut in half (front and back) -Longitudinal: to cut a structure down it’s length -Oblique: at an angle Body Cavities (contain the organs) -Dorsal (towards the back) 1. Cranium: brain 2. Vertebral Cavity: spinal cord -Ventral 1. Thoracic cavity: -Mediastinum: medial cavity in thoracic cavity (heart) -Pleural Cavities: the two lateral parts of the thoracic cavity (lungs) 2. Abdomino-pelvic cavity: -Abdominal cavity: larger and superior -Pelvic Cavity: smaller and inferior -The diaphragm separates the thoracic cavity and abdomino-pelvic cavity Serous Membranes -Line the ventral cavities -Made of two layers -Cover the organs in the ventral cavities -Secretes serous fluid into the space between the two layers to lubricate *this allows the organs to move without friction* Membrane Terminology -Parietal membrane: outer membrane -Visceral membrane: membrane that touches the organ -Around the heart: Pericardium -Touching heart: visceral pericardium -Not touching heart: parietal pericardium -Around the lungs: Pleura -lining the cavity: parietal pleura -covering the lungs: visceral pleura -Around the abdomino-pelvic cavity: Peritoneum -lining the cavity: parietal peritoneum -covering the organs: visceral peritoneum Inflammation of the Serous Membranes -Pleurisy -Pericarditis -Peritonitis Abdomino-pelvic Quadrants -Upper-left -Upper-right -Lower-left -Lower-right Mesenteries -Connective tissue only in abdomino-pelvic cavity -Anchor the abdomino-pelvic organs to the body wall and provide a pathway for blood vessels and nerves to reach the organs -Fat tissue is stored here Retroperitoneal Organs -Behind the peritoneum and not covered by them -Kidneys -Adrenal Glands -Pancreas -Parts of: -intestines -urinary bladder
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