Microbiology: Chapter 1
Microbiology: Chapter 1 2300
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Popular in Microbiology
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Dennis on Thursday September 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 2300 at Georgia State University taught by Dr. Fuhua Lu in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 63 views. For similar materials see Microbiology 2300 in Microbiology at Georgia State University.
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Date Created: 09/01/16
Chapter 1: Humans and the Microbial World Microbiology: the study of organisms too small to be seen After the invention of the microscope Examples: mycology (fungi); bacteriology; virology; parasitology; medical microbiology o Size: Rule: Eukaryotes > Prokaryotes > Virsuses Resolving power: min. distance between 2 objects that can be observed as separate entities Human: .5mm Light microscope: .2um (micro= 10^-6) Electron Microscope: .3nm (namometers= 10^- 9) Prokaryotes = high surface area / volume ratio o History: Born: 1674 mid 1600s: Robert Hooke observes Eukaryotes 1676: Leeuwenhoek discovers bacteria Spontaneous Generation: organisms arise from non- living things Not true… Biogensis: Francesco Redi: a jar with gauze: no growth Spallazani: sealed the jar and heated it: spon. Generation Louis Pasteur: refuted spon. Generation John Tyndall: discovered endospores Golden Age of Microbiology (1850) Germ Theory Disease: diseases are caused by microorganisms Koon Postulates (1884) o Standard in which to figure out disease o Discovery of disease-causing bacteria Joseph Lister: Aseptic Technique o Clean/sterile environment o Reduce post-surgery infection Viruses o Introduction of the electron microscope made this possible Epidemiology: public health o How to prevent the spreading of diseases Ignaz Semmelwise: Hand wash: prevent puerperal fever o Prevention and Treatment of Diseases Resistant individuals prevent transmission of disease 1796: Edward Jenner: vaccination of cow pox Antibiotics 1929-1941: Pencillin by Alexander Fleming Microbial World Acellular Organisms Infectious Agents Bacteria Archaea Eukarya Virus Algae Viroids Protozoa Prion Helminths Fungi Domain Bacteria Prokaryotic cells FIND THEM ANYWHERE No bound nucleus or organelles Diverse cell membranes o Prominent features Shapes: rod-shaped; spherical (cocci); spiral Rigid cells walls; makes the cell shape Name can indicate shape/cluster/traits Peptidoglycan (sugar) o Only found in bacteria o Use drugs that can breakdown the molecule: only in humans Binary fission: how they multiple Cell division; genetically identical Motile: mobility Move by flagella Domain Archaea o Prokaryotic cells o Differences: Cell wall differs Gelatin like; pseudo- Found in extreme environments Temperature, pressure High concentration of salt Domain Eukarya o Eukaryotic cells Membrane bound/ intracellular organelles/ singular/ multicellular o Protzoa Very diverse: water or land Large cell wal; not rigid Energy: organic material/ motile o Algae Singular/ multicellular Chlorophyll/ some have other pigments Rigid cell wall Nomenclature o Binomial naming system First: genus Second: species Application o Food production o Bioremediation: degrade environmental waste o Bacteria can synthesize products Antibiotics Genetic engineering One organism put into unrelated organism to confer new properties Host Bacterial Interactions o Microbial: live within humans o Bacteria outnumber humans (3 to 1) Challenges o Emergence/ resurgence/ chronic disease
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