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Microbiology: Chapter 1

by: Lauren Dennis

Microbiology: Chapter 1 2300

Marketplace > Georgia State University > Microbiology > 2300 > Microbiology Chapter 1
Lauren Dennis
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About this Document

These notes are the introduction of microbiology
Microbiology 2300
Dr. Fuhua Lu
Class Notes
Microbiology, eukaryotic, prokaryote, biogensis, Microbial




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Dennis on Thursday September 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 2300 at Georgia State University taught by Dr. Fuhua Lu in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 63 views. For similar materials see Microbiology 2300 in Microbiology at Georgia State University.


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Date Created: 09/01/16
Chapter 1: Humans and the Microbial World  Microbiology: the study of organisms too small to be seen  After the invention of the microscope  Examples: mycology (fungi); bacteriology; virology; parasitology; medical microbiology o Size:  Rule: Eukaryotes > Prokaryotes > Virsuses  Resolving power: min. distance between 2 objects that can be observed as separate entities  Human: .5mm  Light microscope: .2um (micro= 10^-6)  Electron Microscope: .3nm (namometers= 10^- 9)  Prokaryotes = high surface area / volume ratio o History:  Born: 1674  mid 1600s: Robert Hooke observes Eukaryotes  1676: Leeuwenhoek discovers bacteria  Spontaneous Generation: organisms arise from non- living things  Not true…  Biogensis:  Francesco Redi: a jar with gauze: no growth  Spallazani: sealed the jar and heated it: spon. Generation  Louis Pasteur: refuted spon. Generation  John Tyndall: discovered endospores  Golden Age of Microbiology (1850)  Germ Theory Disease: diseases are caused by microorganisms  Koon Postulates (1884) o Standard in which to figure out disease o Discovery of disease-causing bacteria  Joseph Lister: Aseptic Technique o Clean/sterile environment o Reduce post-surgery infection  Viruses o Introduction of the electron microscope made this possible  Epidemiology: public health o How to prevent the spreading of diseases  Ignaz Semmelwise:  Hand wash: prevent puerperal fever o Prevention and Treatment of Diseases  Resistant individuals prevent transmission of disease  1796: Edward Jenner: vaccination of cow pox  Antibiotics  1929-1941: Pencillin by Alexander Fleming  Microbial World Acellular Organisms Infectious Agents Bacteria Archaea Eukarya Virus Algae Viroids Protozoa Prion Helminths Fungi  Domain Bacteria  Prokaryotic cells  FIND THEM ANYWHERE  No bound nucleus or organelles  Diverse cell membranes o Prominent features  Shapes: rod-shaped; spherical (cocci); spiral  Rigid cells walls; makes the cell shape  Name can indicate shape/cluster/traits  Peptidoglycan (sugar) o Only found in bacteria o Use drugs that can breakdown the molecule: only in humans  Binary fission: how they multiple  Cell division; genetically identical  Motile: mobility  Move by flagella  Domain Archaea o Prokaryotic cells o Differences:  Cell wall differs  Gelatin like; pseudo-  Found in extreme environments  Temperature, pressure  High concentration of salt  Domain Eukarya o Eukaryotic cells  Membrane bound/ intracellular organelles/ singular/ multicellular o Protzoa  Very diverse: water or land  Large cell wal; not rigid  Energy: organic material/ motile o Algae  Singular/ multicellular  Chlorophyll/ some have other pigments  Rigid cell wall  Nomenclature o Binomial naming system  First: genus  Second: species  Application o Food production o Bioremediation: degrade environmental waste o Bacteria can synthesize products  Antibiotics  Genetic engineering  One organism put into unrelated organism to confer new properties  Host Bacterial Interactions o Microbial: live within humans o Bacteria outnumber humans (3 to 1)  Challenges o Emergence/ resurgence/ chronic disease


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