JOUR 201, Chapter 2 Notes
JOUR 201, Chapter 2 Notes JOUR 201
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by runnergal on Thursday September 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to JOUR 201 at University of South Carolina taught by Dr. Brooke McKeever in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Principles of Public Relations in Journalism at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 09/01/16
Chapter 2: The History of Public Relations Rhetoritician and Press Agent Tradition o Rhetoriticians, prevalent in the Early Roman Empire, provided communication services like writing speeches, speaking for clients, and persuasion skills. o Persuasive skills shaped public opinion that determined legal matters. o American Antecedents to Public Relations Colonies used public relations techniques to attract settlers. Harvard had the first systemic fundraising campaign in 1641. King’s College had the first press release in 1758. Crisis brings out the best in public relations techniques; for example, Sam Adams served as the unofficial director of communications during the Revolutionary War. o Public Relations in a Young Nation Public relations first found its home in politics. The Federalist Papers are an excellent example of good public relations. Amos Kendall was the unofficial first press secretary under President Andrew Jackson. Public relations techniques also encouraged western settlement. o P. T. Barnum and Press Agentry P. T. Barnum used public relations techniques to promote his circus. While public relations is fine for entertainment, its use in business and politics can be more malicious. o The Downside of Press Agentry Propaganda of the deed: when a provocative act is committed to draw publicity to an idea. Related to mob rule and terrorism. Journalistic and Publicity Tradition o The Industrial Revolution incited new conflicts between bosses and workers, creating public relations problems when companies failed to meet government labor requirements and those stories were published by the media. o Corporations recognized the importance of combating media hostility with public support. o Early Public Relations Consultants Public relations consultants’ original purposes were to collect facts about clients to distribute to newspapers. The Publicity Bureau worked for railroad companies, courting public opinion to evade governmental regulations. President Teddy Roosevelt’s public relations campaign, however, was superior and extended governmental control over railroads. Ivy Ledbetter Lee is the father of public relations consultants. He and his partner, George Parker, represented a mining corporation that was having problems with strikes. He gave press conferences and distributed a Declaration of Principles (a famous press release), all based on the truth, and the media wrote in his client’s favor. Lee encouraged his clients to align their interests with the public interest. Lee also advised the Rockefellers to be more open with the press after a stray shot at one of their mines led to a boss-worker fight. Lee died in disgrace when the government discovered that he advised Nazis on how to improve German-American relations. o Not-For-Profit Organizations and Movements Started using public relations in the early 1900s. They used full-time publicists to organize fundraising drives. o Early Corporate Communications Departments AT&T hired James Ellsworth to head their PR department in 1907. Businesses started realizing that well-informed employees could also serve as corporate ambassadors/PR professionals. o Early Government Public Relations PR was highly used during World War II. The Persuasive Communication Campaign Tradition o PR was also used a lot in World War I. o The Creel Committee This was a Committee on Public Relations, set up by President Woodrow Wilson in 1917 and run by George Creel during World War I. This committee created messages that people believed and wanted to hear (principles of mass persuasion). Some people, like John Dewey, speculated that the focus on wartime propaganda and business development were causing people to lose interest in civic life. Others, like Walter Lippmann, thought American civic life was now too hard for the average citizen to understand, and PR should be used to influence public perception of issues. o Edward Bernays Bernays supported Lippmann’s interpretation. People can be persuaded if the messages match their personal beliefs. Bernays became an expert at staging “impromptu” media events. Relationship Building and Two-Way Communication o Arthur Page disagreed with Bernays and Lippmann. o Arthur Page Page was asked to be AT&T’s vice-president; he agreed on the condition that publicity would be allowed a voice in company policy, since all companies thrive on positive consumer feedback. He recognized that winning public confidence relied on a steady stream of information, not merely reactions to crises. AT&T committed to good customer service, used many different services itself, and encouraged its employees to join other organizations, all to benefit AT&T’s reputation. *important!* Page recognized that PR essentially understood and communicated public opinion to the company, and the company should react appropriately. Page’s Six Principles of Public Relations 1. Tell the truth 2. Prove it with action 3. Listen to the customer 4. Manage for tomorrow 5. Conduct public relations as if the whole company depends on it 6. Remain calm, patient, and good-humored Page was the first person to recognize that PR is essentially relationship- building and two-way communication. o The Depression and World War II Roosevelt used PR to build public support for his New Deal programs. The Office of War Information used PR to sell war bonds, recruit military, etc. o Post-World War II PR developed rapidly during this period. Many OWI personnel created new PR programs after the war. Expansion of media service led to expansion of PR services in the new consumer economy. Forming relationships with government officials developed during this time. Many Great Society programs of the 1960s-1970s mandated citizen involvement – research was needed to assess how stakeholders were affected by these changes. PR professionals helped these governmental officials perform this research to address the public’s needs. o Harold Burson Burson began his own PR agency in 1946 and joined with Bill Marsteller in 1953 to create the Burson-Marsteller agency. Burson said the success of agencies depends on: 1. Hiring dedicated employees that will work for the firm for many years. 2. Developing a family atmosphere between employees. 3. Creating a corporate culture by staffing new offices with current employees. 4. Ensure the firm is a leader by using new media, tools, etc. o Moss Kendrix Kendrix was an African-American that created his own firm in 1944, where he did PR work for the Republic of Liberia’s Centennial Celebration. He eventually went on to conduct ad campaigns for Coca- Cola, Ford, and other companies. o Professionalization of the Field 1960-2000: professionalization of PR. PRSA was created in 1948, and it developed a code of ethics for the field in 1954, rewriting the code in 2000. It also began ethics enforcement in 1962 and an accreditation program in 1964. The International Association of Business Communicators (IABC) was established in 1970, and it performed researched studies about PR. IABC also administers an accreditation program. PR organizations also started writing magazines and journals for PR professionals during this time. College classes and research publications reinforced the idea that PR consists of research, planning, communication, implementation, and evaluation. o New Stakeholder Groups Social groups, like environmental groups, used PR to oppose governmental activities in the 1960s-1970s. These concerns prompted businesses, especially regulated businesses, to pay more attention to public opinion and government relationships. o The Global Information Society The introduction of the internet and the expansion of PR agencies prompted the beginning of the global information society in the 1990s. Specialty agencies, such as investor relations, also defined this era. PR also started collaborating with corporate giving and social responsibility. Global markets led to global strategy with local and cultural nuances. o The Internet to Social Media Before the internet, PR practitioners gave information to media. Now reporters get information from the internet instead of waiting for information from companies. Reporters use social media and blogs to get quotes now. Non-profits and other organizations use social media as free PR tools. o Global Communications Demands Global markets speed up product introductions and information/analytics needs. Global markets require PR practitioners to understand local cultures. o Proliferating Communication Channels More media channels are being created in response for more specialized consumer and information demands. PR professionals now need to match traditional and online media to their consumers’ interests.
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