New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

BIO 1305: Chapter 2 Life Chemistry and Energy Notes

by: mmmedrano13

BIO 1305: Chapter 2 Life Chemistry and Energy Notes Biol 1305 - 009

Marketplace > University of Texas at El Paso > Biology > Biol 1305 - 009 > BIO 1305 Chapter 2 Life Chemistry and Energy Notes

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes cover the second chapter of bio 1305
General Biology
Class Notes
Biology, Chemistry
25 ?




Popular in General Biology

Popular in Biology

This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by mmmedrano13 on Thursday September 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 1305 - 009 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Hsini-Lin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biology at University of Texas at El Paso.


Reviews for BIO 1305: Chapter 2 Life Chemistry and Energy Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/01/16
2.1 Atomic Structure is the Basis for Life’s Chemistry ▯ Living and nonliving matter is composed of atoms  Like charges repel; dif. charges attract  Most atoms are neutral bc # of electrons = # of protons  Dalton-mass of 1 proton or neutron o 1.7 x 10^(-24) g  Mass of electrons are ignored bc they are small o 1/1836 proton ▯ Element-pure substance that contains only one kind of atom ▯ Molecule – 2+ atoms bonded together ▯ Compound – molecule containing at least 2 elements  Living things are mostly composed of 6 o Carbon o Hydrogen o Nitrogen o Oxygen o Phosphorus o Sulfur # of proton identifies element o # of protons = atomic number o Electrical neutrality, # protons = # electrons o Mass number- total # of protons + neutrons  Isotope- variants of a particular element ▯ Bohr model- atom is largely empty space, electrons occur in orbits (electron shells) ▯ Behavior of electrons -> whether chemical bond will form & what shape bond will have  Atoms w. unfilled outer shells tend to undergo chemical reactions to fill outer shells o Can attain stability by sharing electrons w. other or losing/gaining electrons o Atoms are then bonded together into molecules ▯ Octet rule- atoms w. at least 2 electron shells form stable molecules so they have 8 electrons in their outermost shells ▯ Chemical bond- attractive force that links atoms together to form molecules ▯ Kinds of chemical bonds  Ionic attraction- attraction of opposite charges o Ions- charged particles that form when atom gains/loses 1+ electron  Cations- + ions  Anions- - ions o Salts- resulting molecules  NaCl  Attractions are weak -> salt easily dissolve in water  Covalent bond- 2 atoms sharing electron pairs o Attain stability by having full outer shells  C atoms have 4 electrons in outer shell, therefore can form covalent bonds w. 4 other atoms  Methane (CH 4) o Each atom contributes one member of the electron pair o Properties of molecules are influenced by characteristics of the covalent bonds:  Orientation- length, angle, and direction of bonds between any 2 elements are always the same  Strength and stability- bonds are very strong; takes a lot of energy to break them  Multiple bonds  Degree of sharing electrons is not always equal o Electronegativity- attractive force that an atomic nucleus exerts on electrons  Depends on # of protons and distance between nucleus & electrons  Nonpolar covalent bond- If 2 atoms have similar electro negativities, they share electrons equally  Polar covalent bond- have dif. Electro negativities, electrons tend to be near the most attractive atom  Hydrogen bond- sharing H atom o Form between water molecules  Form multiple H bonds w. each other- contributes to high heat capacity  A lot of heat is required to raise the temp of water- heat energy breaks H bonds o Important in structure of DNA and proteins  In organisms, presence of water shields them from fluctuations in environmental temp o Gives water cohesive strength  Cohesion- water molecules resist coming apart when placed under tension  Permits narrow columns of water to move from roots to leaves of plants o Any polar molecule can interact w. any other polar molecule thru H bonds  Hydrophobic (water hating) interaction- interaction of nonpolar substances in the presence of polar substances (esp. water) o Hydrophilic (water loving)- In aqueous solutions, polar molecules become separated & surrounded by water molecules  Van der Waals interaction- interaction of electrons of nonpolar substances ▯ Functional groups- small groups of atoms w. specific chemical properties  Confer these properties to larger molecules  A biological molecule may contain many functional groups ▯ Macromolecules  Most biological molecules are polymers, made by covalent bonding of monomers (smaller molecules) o Proteins: formed from dif. combos of 20 amino acids o Carbohydrates: formed by linking similar monosaccharides (sugar monomers) to form polysaccharide o Nucleic acids: formed from 4 kinds of nucleotide monomers o Lipids: noncovalent forces maintain the interactions between the lipid monomers  Polymers are formed and broken apart in reactions involving water o Condensation- removal of water links monomers together o Hydrolysis- addition of water breaks polymer to monomer ▯ Carbohydrates  Source of stored energy  Transport stored energy within complex organisms  Structural molecules that give many organisms their shapes  Recognition/signaling molecules that can trigger specific biological responses ▯ Monosaccharide- simple sugars  Pentose- 5 C sugars  Ribose and deoxyribose each have 5 C, but vary dif. chemical properties & biological roles  Hexoses (C 6H 12O 6) are 6 C sugars o Glucose, fructose, mannose, and galactose Glycosidic linkages- formed when monosaccharides are covalently bonded by condensation reactions ▯ Sucrose is a disaccharide ▯ Oligosaccharides contain several monosaccharides  Have additional functional groups  Often bonded to proteins & lipids on cell surfaces, where they serve as recognition signals ▯ Polysaccharides- large polymers of monosaccharides; chains can be branching  Starches- family of polysaccharides of glucose  Glycogen- highly branched polymer of glucose o Main energy storage molecule in mammals  Cellulose- most abundant carbon-containing (organic) biological compound on Earth o Stable, good structure material o ▯ Lipids- hydrocarbons (composed of C & H atoms) insoluble in water bc of many nonpolar covalent bonds  When close together, weak but additive van der Waals interactions hold them together  Store energy in C-C and C-H bonds  Play structural role in cell membranes  Fat in animal bodies serves as thermal insulation ▯ Triglycerides (simple lipids) have little polarity & extremely hydrophobic  Fats- solid @ room temp  Oils- liquid @ room temp  Consist of: o 3 fatty acids- nonpolar hydrocarbon chain attached to a polar carboxyl group (-COOH)(carboxylic acid) o 1 glycerol- alcohol w. 3 hydroxyl (-OH) groups  Synthesis involves 3 condensation reactions ▯ Fatty acid chains can vary in length and structure  Saturated fatty acids- all bonds between C atoms are single, saturated w. H’s o Ex. Animal oil  Unsaturated fatty acid- hydrocarbon chains contain 1+ 2x bonds, cause kinks in the chain & prevent molecules from packing together tightly o Ex. Corn oil  Are amphipathic= hydrophilic end + hydrophobic tail ▯ Phospholipid- 2 fatty acids + phosphate compound bound to glycerol  Has – charge, making that part of the molecule hydrophilic  In aqueous environment, phospholipids form a bilayer o Nonpolar, hydrophobic tails pack together and the phosphate containing head face outward, where they interact w. water o ▯ Chemical reactions occur when atoms have enough energy to combine/change bonding partners ▯ Metabolism- sum total of all chemical reactions occurring in a biological system at a given time  Involve energy (capacity to do work) changes o All forms of energy can be considered:  Potential- energy of state/position, or stored energy  Kinetic- energy of movement (type of energy that does work) that makes things change  Energy can be converted from one form to another o Sun -> sugar o Battery-> flashlight  2 basic types o Anabolic reactions- link simple molecules to form complex ones  Require energy inputs; energy is captured in the chemical bonds that form  Ex. Glucose + fructose -> sucrose o Catabolic reactions- break down complex molecules into simpler ones  Energy stored in the chemical bonds is released  Ex. Sucrose -> glucose + fructose ▯ The laws of thermodynamics apply to all matter and energy transformations in the universe  1 law: Energy is neither created nor destroyed  2nd law: Disorder (entropy) tends to increase over time o When energy is converted from one form to another, some of that energy becomes unavailable for doing work o If a chemical reaction increases entropy, its products are more disordered/random than its reactants o If products < reactants, the disorder is reduced; requires energy to achieve o As a result of energy transformations, disorder tends to increase  Some energy is always lost to random thermal motion (entropy) ▯ Metabolism creates disorder (more energy is lost to entropy) > order that is stored  Ex. The anabolic reactions needed to construct 1 kg of animal body require the catabolism of about 10 kg of food  Life requires a constant input of energy to maintain order


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Kyle Maynard Purdue

"When you're taking detailed notes and trying to help everyone else out in the class, it really helps you learn and understand the I made $280 on my first study guide!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.