Intro to Sociology Lecture and Textbook Notes (Chapter One)
Intro to Sociology Lecture and Textbook Notes (Chapter One) SOCI 1311-004
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by M.G on Thursday September 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOCI 1311-004 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Dr. Dorothy Kalanzi in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 78 views.
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Lecture One and Two Syllabus and Chapter One 8/30/2016 Lecture One and Two Overview of Lecture One: ● Exams ○ 4 exams ○ Final is not comprehensive ○ Each exam is worth 100pts (420pts for an A) ■ Signature assignment worth 20pts ● Extra Credit ○ Extra credit is earned by participation and active discussion of the chapter ● Rules ○ Don’t be disruptive ○ Turn off all devices ■ Laptops c an be used for notetaking, but those on laptops must stay in the last two rows of the classroom. ■ No taking pictures! ○ Do not ask the instructor for lecture notes or a powerpoint. They will not be given to you, as it is your responsibility to take good notes or find them elsewhere ○ Phones should be on silent or turned off and put away ○ Pay attention ○ Ask questions ○ Don’t fall behind Lecture Two: Chapter One: The Sociological Perspective ● Sociology is one of the youngest academic disciplines ○ Did not become a discipline until the 1890’s ○ Founded in powerful social forces beginning in the 1750’s in europe ■ Due to industrialization, urbanization, and migrations ● Social Forces influencing the founding of Sociology ○ The French Revolution ■ 1789 ● Problems in France caused riots and a revolution ○ Immigration to the United States ■ 1800’s ○ Children working in factories ■ Early 1900s ■ Child labor laws did not exist ■ Many children often worked ● Early origins of Sociology ○ Greek philosophers tried to study how to create a utopian society ● Auguste Comte ○ The father of sociology ■ He decided to study current society ■ He viewed the study of sociology as a science ■ 17981857 ● French philosopher ○ Theory of Social Development ■ Society evolves from stages ● 1) The Theological Stage ○ Every society begins here ○ People in this society automatically contributes things to the divine ■ Like gods of fertility and rain ● 2) The Metaphysical Stage ○ The transition stage where people still think in terms of the divine, but they are beginning to scientifically resolve their problems ○ headache=herbs whose value is credited to a deity ● 3) The Positivism Stage (Scientific) ○ Social problems are resolved by science ■ Headache=medicine ● What is sociology? ○ The systematic study of human society ○ A scientific discipline ■ Uses research and theories ● Sociological perspective ○ A unique view of looking at society ○ Benefits ■ Helps us to ascertain the truth out of common sense ● If we see homeless as victims, we are sympathetic ○ The homeless are victims of society ● If we see homeless as problems, we are unkind and rude ■ Empowerment to be active participants in society that elicit change ■ Sociology promotes public awareness of social problems ■ Analyzes inequality ● Privileges ● Etcetera ■ Who is affected, why, and how can we fix the issue? ○ Sociology helps us to assess opportunities and constraints in our lives ■ Our opportunities are other people’s constraints ○ Sociology helps us to see the strange, foreign things from our own, familiar view ■ Strangesness is in the eye of the beholder ● Children ■ Helps us to see social patterns in behavior of specific individuals and how society shapes it ● Global perspective ○ Sociology helps us to have a global perspective ■ Technology and the economy has connected all societies more than ever before. ○ The issues we have in the U.S are much more severe in other countries ■ Poverty ■ Education ■ Homelessness ● Where we live determines our behavior, life choices, and who we become in society. Society shapes our lives ● Social Theories ○ Other disciplines do not have social theories ■ They borrow from sociology and psychology ● Theoretical Paradigms ○ Structural functional paradigm ■ Macro approach to society; i.e, the society is seen as a whole and as an organism with all parts working for the whole ● All parts are functional ■ Who’s Who? ● Herbert Spencer (1820 1903) ○ Society is like the human body ● Auguste Comte (17981857) ○ Father of Sociology ● Emile Durkheim ○ Frenchman that helped establish Sociology as a discipline ● Robert K. Merton ○ American that contributed theories why people commit crime ○ Functions ■ Manifest functions ● Recognized and intended consequences ○ College to succeed in workforce ■ Latent functions ● Unrecognized and unintended consequences ○ Get social networks at college that will help in workforce later ■ Social dysfunctions ● Undesirable consequences ○ Social conflict paradigm ■ Macro approach that view society as an arena of inequality working against each other ■ Always look for conflict in society ● Rich vs. poor ● Males vs. females ● Majority vs. minority races ● Young vs. old ■ Who’s Who ● Karl Marx (18181883) ○ A German ■ Social class inequality ■ Major source of social conflict ● W.E.B. Du Bois (18681963) ○ Significance of race in the US ○ Race as a major problem facing the US in the 20th century ○ Symbolic interactionism paradigm ■ Micro approach ■ Who’s Who ● Irving Goffman ○ Dramaturgical analysis ○ Presentation of the self ○ We are all actors ● Max Weber ○ Talked about bureaucracies ● George Herbert Mead ○ Personality development from social experience ● Sigmund Freud ○ Theories regarding the mind ● Jean Pieget ○ More theories regarding the mind ● Erick Erirckson ○ More on the mind ● Travis Hirshi ○ Criminal Justice ○ Talked about why people commit crime ○ Female sociologists ■ Harriet Martineau ● 18021876 ■ Jane Addams ● 18601935 ○ Advocated for immigrants Glossary ● Sociology: The systematic study of human behavior; the study of how humans behave ● Sociological perspective: seeing the general in the particular; seeing the bigger picture from the smaller one ● Global perspective: the study of the world and our particular society’s place in it ● Highincome countries: countries with the highest standards of living. ● Middleincome countries: countries with an average standard of living ● Lowincome countries: countries with a low standard of living where most citizens are poor ● Theological stage of society: A period from the beginning of human existence to 1350 C.E where people believed that society expressed God’s will. ● Metaphysical stage of society: A period from 1350 C.E to around 1500 C.E where people saw society as a natural system ● Scientific stage of society: Physics, chemistry started when scientists applied the scientific approach to the study of the physical world ● Positivism: A scientific approach to knowledge based on “positive” facts rather than speculation ● Theoretical approach: A basic image of society that guides thinking and research