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Hist 462: History of the Middle East, Week 1 Notes

by: Kayteeessbee

Hist 462: History of the Middle East, Week 1 Notes Hist 462

Marketplace > Western Kentucky University > History > Hist 462 > Hist 462 History of the Middle East Week 1 Notes
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About this Document

These notes cover information from the powerpoint on Blackboard, as well as supplemental information provided by Dr. Romero during lecture. I utilized bolding, italicizing, and underlining to displ...
History of the Middle East
Dr. Juan Romero
Class Notes
MiddleEast, history, islam, Quran




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kayteeessbee on Thursday September 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 462 at Western Kentucky University taught by Dr. Juan Romero in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see History of the Middle East in History at Western Kentucky University.


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Date Created: 09/01/16
August 23 1. Pre­Islamic Era •Al­Jahiliyya­Era of Ignorance •People hadn’t been enlightened by the prophet Muhammad yet •Looked down upon by many/most Muslims •Islam: You submit yourself to God (means “submission”) •Muslims emphasize submission to what they call God’s will •Sunni: majority version of Islam, not the “orthodox” because Shi’ites have also  been around since the beginning •Shi’ites: minority—found in Iran (most people are), Bahrain (Sunni family rules,  but Shi’ites are majority), in Yemen,  •Main difference: Sunnis claim anybody could have succeeded prophet  Muhammad, if they had the right qualifications. Shi’ites argue since 632 when  PM died, only somebody from the prophet’s immediate family is qualified to  succeed him. •Arab Spring •Caliphate: early state •Afghanistan and Pakistan: tons of tension and friction •Hazra: Genghis Khan’s moguls descendants, speak own language •Conversion to other religions often leads to execution, etc. 2. Literalists vs Contextualists •Interpretations of God’s will: Literalist: rigid, no speculation, it is what it is; no  reading between lines, take scriptures at face value, no interpretations, and  Contextualist: less rigid, context is very important, realize huge weakness of  literalists: that literalism itself is an interpretation •Most contextualists are understanding, but some are extreme 3. Caliphate 4. Reactions to European Intrustion 5. ? 6. Mandates 7. Nationalism and Decolonization •Interwar years between WWI and WWII and following WWII 8. Oil and Cold War 9. Arab­Israeli Conflict •Began in 19th Century when ideology of Zionism first emerged in Europe 10. Arab Uprising •2010 11. Terrorism 12. Women in Democracy Defining the “Middle East:” •Many definitions •Arab East •Arabic speaking countries, etc. •For this class: Israel included (I24 News/App: info on Palestinian conflict) August 25 Pre­Islamic society:  Tribal, raiding, plundering  Al­Jahiliyya  Sources: proverbs, legends, word­of­mouth, poetry  No script/system of writing=no prose  Poetry: because easier to pass on without writing (orally)  7 Mu’allaqat: suspended at FoU  Fair of Ukaz: Everybody got together in Mecca, traded goods, listened to  poetry  This became the pilgrimage (Haj)  Qasida: odes; long poems  Qit’a: short poems  Poet in the tribe: spiritual leader of tribe, had access to world normal  people could not access; had knowledge hidden from the average person  Main duty of poet: keep track of successes of the tribe (other tribes  defeated, how much they stole from other, how beautiful women were,  etc.)  Muru’a: courage, loyalty, generosity (must provide shelter to foreigners, no matter who they are; be a gentleman)  The moon’s role: allowed people to travel by night via illumination, out of  100+ degree daytime weather; also gave info about water, harvest,  seasons, etc.  Makka: Center of pilgrimage, al­Ka’ba, the black stone, idols, presence of  other/new religions  Three sisters of Allah (Mana, al­Lat, al­Uzza); Satanic verses; Muhhamad  was tested by the devil; later told everybody that Allah did not have  sisters: there is only one God  One­ness of God is central concept in Islam  (al=the, in English) Arabic Language:  Semitic/“non­vowelized” text  Very rich language  Great for poets, because easy to rhyme due to grammar  “Pls st dwn:” pretty simple  Islam:  Makkan opposition:   Muhammad’s tribe: Quraish  Madina: al­hijra, 622  Five pillars of Islam:   Shahada: First verse of Quaran  Salat: Pray 5 times a day  Zakat: Social security of Muslims; charitable tax redistributed  among the poor  Sawm: Fasting during Ramadan (during day, and “party” at night  LOL); lunar calendar, so it does not fall at the same time every  year; no sex, too  Hajj: Pilgrimage to Mekka; duty of every muslim to do this in  lifetime, except pregnant women, sick people, children, and old  people.  Revealed religion:   The Quran: Makkanese and Madinese suras;   Only one version sanctioned/accepted beside minor discrepancies in  vowelization  Suras: Quranic chapters  Ayrat: Quranic verse Kaaba:  Important tradition  Sacred enclosure surrounded­all people had to put down their arms  Trade facilitated  Spiritual and economic importance  Soufism: Islamic mysticism; mystic way; believe you can establish a close, personal relationship with God via certain practices such as recitation;  Soufis incarcerated in certain places because they are considered  “dangerous”  Khadija: very prominent female in Islam  Soufis can also be women;  Women also prominent in Islamic arts;  You may not draw any portraits of Muhammad or God­it is forbidden;  Caligraphy is instead used to show beauty of God  Nothing exists objectively outside of Islam­it should permeate all  aspects of human life.


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