Hist 462: History of the Middle East, Week 1 Notes
Hist 462: History of the Middle East, Week 1 Notes Hist 462
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kayteeessbee on Thursday September 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 462 at Western Kentucky University taught by Dr. Juan Romero in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see History of the Middle East in History at Western Kentucky University.
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Date Created: 09/01/16
August 23 1. PreIslamic Era •AlJahiliyyaEra of Ignorance •People hadn’t been enlightened by the prophet Muhammad yet •Looked down upon by many/most Muslims •Islam: You submit yourself to God (means “submission”) •Muslims emphasize submission to what they call God’s will •Sunni: majority version of Islam, not the “orthodox” because Shi’ites have also been around since the beginning •Shi’ites: minority—found in Iran (most people are), Bahrain (Sunni family rules, but Shi’ites are majority), in Yemen, •Main difference: Sunnis claim anybody could have succeeded prophet Muhammad, if they had the right qualifications. Shi’ites argue since 632 when PM died, only somebody from the prophet’s immediate family is qualified to succeed him. •Arab Spring •Caliphate: early state •Afghanistan and Pakistan: tons of tension and friction •Hazra: Genghis Khan’s moguls descendants, speak own language •Conversion to other religions often leads to execution, etc. 2. Literalists vs Contextualists •Interpretations of God’s will: Literalist: rigid, no speculation, it is what it is; no reading between lines, take scriptures at face value, no interpretations, and Contextualist: less rigid, context is very important, realize huge weakness of literalists: that literalism itself is an interpretation •Most contextualists are understanding, but some are extreme 3. Caliphate 4. Reactions to European Intrustion 5. ? 6. Mandates 7. Nationalism and Decolonization •Interwar years between WWI and WWII and following WWII 8. Oil and Cold War 9. ArabIsraeli Conflict •Began in 19th Century when ideology of Zionism first emerged in Europe 10. Arab Uprising •2010 11. Terrorism 12. Women in Democracy Defining the “Middle East:” •Many definitions •Arab East •Arabic speaking countries, etc. •For this class: Israel included (I24 News/App: info on Palestinian conflict) August 25 PreIslamic society: Tribal, raiding, plundering AlJahiliyya Sources: proverbs, legends, wordofmouth, poetry No script/system of writing=no prose Poetry: because easier to pass on without writing (orally) 7 Mu’allaqat: suspended at FoU Fair of Ukaz: Everybody got together in Mecca, traded goods, listened to poetry This became the pilgrimage (Haj) Qasida: odes; long poems Qit’a: short poems Poet in the tribe: spiritual leader of tribe, had access to world normal people could not access; had knowledge hidden from the average person Main duty of poet: keep track of successes of the tribe (other tribes defeated, how much they stole from other, how beautiful women were, etc.) Muru’a: courage, loyalty, generosity (must provide shelter to foreigners, no matter who they are; be a gentleman) The moon’s role: allowed people to travel by night via illumination, out of 100+ degree daytime weather; also gave info about water, harvest, seasons, etc. Makka: Center of pilgrimage, alKa’ba, the black stone, idols, presence of other/new religions Three sisters of Allah (Mana, alLat, alUzza); Satanic verses; Muhhamad was tested by the devil; later told everybody that Allah did not have sisters: there is only one God Oneness of God is central concept in Islam (al=the, in English) Arabic Language: Semitic/“nonvowelized” text Very rich language Great for poets, because easy to rhyme due to grammar “Pls st dwn:” pretty simple Islam: Makkan opposition: Muhammad’s tribe: Quraish Madina: alhijra, 622 Five pillars of Islam: Shahada: First verse of Quaran Salat: Pray 5 times a day Zakat: Social security of Muslims; charitable tax redistributed among the poor Sawm: Fasting during Ramadan (during day, and “party” at night LOL); lunar calendar, so it does not fall at the same time every year; no sex, too Hajj: Pilgrimage to Mekka; duty of every muslim to do this in lifetime, except pregnant women, sick people, children, and old people. Revealed religion: The Quran: Makkanese and Madinese suras; Only one version sanctioned/accepted beside minor discrepancies in vowelization Suras: Quranic chapters Ayrat: Quranic verse Kaaba: Important tradition Sacred enclosure surroundedall people had to put down their arms Trade facilitated Spiritual and economic importance Soufism: Islamic mysticism; mystic way; believe you can establish a close, personal relationship with God via certain practices such as recitation; Soufis incarcerated in certain places because they are considered “dangerous” Khadija: very prominent female in Islam Soufis can also be women; Women also prominent in Islamic arts; You may not draw any portraits of Muhammad or Godit is forbidden; Caligraphy is instead used to show beauty of God Nothing exists objectively outside of Islamit should permeate all aspects of human life.
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