Genetics Week One
Genetics Week One BIO310
Virginia Commonwealth University
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Popular in BIO
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jayda Abrams on Thursday September 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO310 at Virginia Commonwealth University taught by Dr. Wu in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 237 views. For similar materials see Genetics in BIO at Virginia Commonwealth University.
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Date Created: 09/01/16
Genetics Week One Notes 8/31/16 Information from the Power Point = blue Verbal information = green Introduction Genetics- The study of inheritance and passing information from one generation to the next. Mendel is known as the father of genetics! There are four main types of genetics that are studied: Traditional Genetics, Molecular Genetics, Cytogenetics and Quantitative Genetics. Traditional Genetics- Used in earlier times and is still used today. This genetics is seen when breeding plants and animals Cytogenetics- Done with a microscope to see chromosomes and processes like mitosis or meiosis. Molecular Genetics- Genetics at a molecular level. It is too small to see! Deals with nucleotides, DNA and RNA. Quantitative Genetics- Also known as evolutionary genetics, deals with math and numbers to explain populations and statistics. Today genetics is used for genetic modifications and engineering of plants and animals. 1.1 History of Genetics The dawn of modern biology arose between 1600 and 1850. During this time many scientist came up with different theories and made discoveries that shape the genetics we see and use today. William Harvey: Theory of Epigenesis- This theory states that internal body structures (like organs) are not present in the embryo of an organism and develop later. In 1830 The Cell Theory was proposed by Schleiden and Schwann. This theory states that all organisms have cells, which are basic structural units. Charles Darwin’s ideas on evolution was first published in 1859 in The Origin of Species. This included his ideas on Evolution, Decent with Modification and Natural Selection. Theory of evolution was also proposed by Alfred Russel Wallace. Natural selection is the mechanism for evolutionary change however decent with modifications just states that existing species came from an ancestor. 1.2 Progression of Genetics Mendel worked with peas and used his quantitative data to prove his theories about traits and transmission of genetic information between generations. His work was published in 1866. Mendel is the father of genetics. He worked with peas and flowers to see how genetics works. He is the father of genetics because he took the time and had the effort and patents to keep records of all of his finding and documenting simple things like which peas are smooth, round, big, small, yellow, green etc. He used many generations and identified the genetic rule. For genetics you always need more than one generation. Transmission genetics also known as Traditional Genetics or Mendel Genetics. Mitosis - Chromosomes are copied and distributed and the two resulting daughter cells each receive a diploid set. (Diploid = 2n) Meiosis- Chromosomes are copied and distributed and the resulting cells (gametes) receive only half the number of chromosomes, these are haploid. Each species contains a stable number of chromosomes with meiosis by cutting the number of chromosomes from each parent. Humans have 46 chromosomes and every single organism has its own specific number of chromosomes. All genes are carried in the chromosomes and the higher the number of a chromosome the shorter the length of the chromosome. (In humans st th the 1 set of chromosomes are the longest and the 46 set are the shortest.) Humans also have sex chromosomes: The male sex is XY and the female sex is XX. Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance states that traits that are inherited come from genes within the chromosomes. Gametes transmit genes and maintain genetic continuity throughout generations. Alleles are produced through gene mutations and create genetic diversity and variation. Examples: Cystic Fibrosis, Hemophilia, or Albinism. These are mutations and are not common in most people. Genotype is the set of specific alleles that give a trait. Genotype is what you are made up of that cannot be seen. Example: Short people can still have tall genes. Phenotype is the expression of the genotype that creates an observable characteristic or trait. Phenotype you can see what has been expressed with the eyes. Example: Short and Tall. Phenotype is descriptive. The genotype controls the phenotype. Genotype can’t be seen because they are burred in the DNA. Genotype is the symbol of the phenotype. DNA carries genetic information and this was shown with research published in 1944 by Avery, MacLeod, and McCarty. 1.3 All About the Double Helix DNA is an anti-parallel double stranded helix made up of nucleotides. In DNA A is attached to T by a double bond and C is attached to G by a triple bond. In RNA U replaces T. A monomer is a nucleotide made up of deoxyribose attached to a phosphate (They are also bonded to the ATGC bases). RNA and DNA are similar however RNA is single stranded and a U replaces a T. Central dogma of genetics: DNA is turned into RNA, RNA is turned into a protein. Codons are the genetic code! Proteins are the end product of gene expression and a proteins location with in a cell will create a phenotype. Codons are the code from DNA to be messenger RNA to be a protein. Proteins are the expressed forms of DNA. It has to be expressed to function! Proteins are made up of 20 different amino acids and this is why there is so much diversity between organisms. 1.4 Development of Technology for Cloning In the 70s it was discovered that restriction enzymes in bacteria cut viral DNA at specific sites and that the restriction enzymes allowed the advent of recombinant DNA and cloning. Cloning- Creating something identical to the original from the original. With cloning you can study an organism more in-depth. Enzymes have two jobs: Put things together Take things apart DNA is so long and it can’t be manipulated because of its length. Restricting enzymes cut DNA at specific locations creating a shorter less complex lengths. 1.5 Biotechnology Biotechnology goes hand in hand with genetics and is a huge and developing industry in the world. How to Clone? Vs How to Modify? Cloning makes an identical copy and does NOT involve sex/mating. Example: Dolly the Sheep Example: Cloning of an orchid from a tissue culture (Done by Dr. Wu) Modifying something has to change the genetics. It can make something taller, shorter, fatter skinnier, healthier, live longer etc. Most genetic information comes from studying genetic modifications. Biotechnology is now used in: health care, supermarket products, agriculture and court system. Today biotechnology can be found everywhere in daily lives including food we eat (like potatoes or pigs) to gas used to fuel cars (biofuel- made of corn that can ferment easily to create alcohol). Biotechnology has been used for the genetic modification of crop plants to increased herbicide, viral resistance, nutritional enhancement and water use reduction. Today 70% of corn in the United States has been genetically engineered to become insect resistant. Golden Rice- That contains Beta Carotene and provides all nutrients needed Biotechnology is used daily for genetic testing (like paternity testing). 1.6 New Era Genomics Studies the structure, function, and evolution of genes and genomes Proteomics Identifies a set of proteins present in cells under a given set of conditions Studies their functions and interactions Is it a good protein? Is it a bad protein? After being expressed what do they do? Bioinformatics Uses hardware and software for processing nucleotide and protein data Bioinformatics- uses computers to study genetics. All life has a common origin and genes with similar functions in different organisms are similar in their structure and in DNA sequences. Reverse genetics is when the DNA sequence of a gene is known but the function is not. Reverse genetics starts with a protein and finds the DNA that made it. Gene knockout- Allows scientist to find the function of a gene by eliminating it. Gene knockout is done if one wants to know what a gene is responsible for. You knock it out and see the response. Gene knockouts are done by mutations/ changing the gene. 1.7 Genetic Studies and Their Modifications Organisms used for genetic studies are: easy to grow, have a short life cycle, have a straightforward genetic analysis and reproduce many offspring. Humans are not good subjects! Fruit flies are! They can produce over 100 offspring in 2 weeks! Transferring genes across a species can be done with recombinant DNA technology. 1.8 Age of Genetics Mendel started studying genetics around 1865. Development in genetics ranged from Mendel’s peas to the Human Genome Project. The Noble prize was awarded to Watson, Crick and Wilkins in 1962. Today there are tons of genetic related issues in society including access to gene therapy, prenatal testing and ownership of genes. How you respond to medicine depends on the genes you have! DNA can also be stored to use in the future!
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