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BIO notes 2 Chemistry of Life

by: Ashley Beals

BIO notes 2 Chemistry of Life BIO 1102

Marketplace > University of Connecticut > Biology > BIO 1102 > BIO notes 2 Chemistry of Life
Ashley Beals

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About this Document

Notes from 8/30 class
Foundations of Biology
A. Fry
Class Notes
Bio, Science, Chemistry
25 ?




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Beals on Thursday September 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 1102 at University of Connecticut taught by A. Fry in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Foundations of Biology in Biology at University of Connecticut.


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Date Created: 09/01/16
Atoms: Fundamental substance that has mass and takes up space  Element: By definition, each element has a unique number of protons in the nucleus  Protons usually equal the amount of ​electrons. ​  Because the amount protons and electrons are  equal the charge of the atom is e ​ lectrically equal​   Mass number: total number of protons and neutrons  Isotope​: Elements that have the same number of protons, but different numbers of neutrons  12C= 6 protons, 6 neutrons (most common)  14​ C=6 protons, 8 neutrons (2 extra neutrons, radioactive carbon)  Radioactive Decay: If an element has too many neutrons, it may be unstable and give off  energy or radiation to get rid of extra neutrons.  How do tracer studies work? Attach radioisotope to molecules and track where they go.  Oxygen released from plants comes from splitting water (H​ O), not 2​​    2 Electrons orbit the nucleus in s ​ hells.​ The first shell can hold​ ​ electrons. The second can hold 8 ​​   If the outer shell is not full, the atom wants to g ​ ain, share, or lose electrons. ​  It will form ​chemical  bonds​ with other atoms to complete its outer shell.  Hydrogen: one electron in its first shell, wants 2  Helium: is not reactive  Oxygen: first shell has 2 electrons second only has 6 and wants 8  Carbon: 2 electrons in the first shell. The second has 4 and wants 8. It can form up to 4 bonds  to reach 8  Ion: when an atom gains or loses an electron giving it a positive or negative charge  Ionic bond: when an electron is transferred making their charges opposite so that they stick  together.  Covalent bond: when two atoms share an electron to make up their outer shell  Non polar bond: two identical atoms share electrons equally and show no difference in charge  Polar bond: two or more different atoms share electrons unequally creating a positive and  negative side  Hydrogen Bond​: When hydrogen atoms locked into polar covalent bonds stick to other atoms  that are negatively charged.  Water is a heat reservoir: Water absorbs a lot of heat before increasing in temperature, cools  slowly  Water is an excellent solvent: many things dissolve in water. Waters polar charges can keep  other ions separated in a solution.  Hydrophilic= water loving polar molecules  ex. Salt, sugar  Hydrophobic= water hating non polar molecules ex. Oils, fat, wax  General solubility rule: Like dissolves like. Hydrophobic dissolves hydrophobic, hydrophilic  dissolves hydrophilic  Oil and gasoline ​float​ on water. Gasoline vapors are h ​ eavier​ than air.   . . .Soap molecules have both hy ​ drophobic and hydrophilic  ​ parts.(called surfactant)   Water is sticky: water sticks to itself creating surface tension. Why: hydrogen bonds  Capillary action​: the ability of water to rise in narrow tubes or to be drawn into very small  openings    Water evaporates: and takes heat with it  Water takes heat away from the body 2 ​ 5 times​ faster than air.   Ice is less dense than water: water expands when frozen and ice floats on top of water  Why does salt melt ice? Because salt ions get in the way of water forming regular ice bonds  Hard water: Has many positively charged ions. Doesn’t allow soap to stick to skin, but leaves a  soap scum on surfaces.  Soft water: too few ions. Doesn’t pull soap off your skin, skin feels slippery/ slimy   


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