BIO notes 2 Chemistry of Life
BIO notes 2 Chemistry of Life BIO 1102
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Beals on Thursday September 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 1102 at University of Connecticut taught by A. Fry in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Foundations of Biology in Biology at University of Connecticut.
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Date Created: 09/01/16
Atoms: Fundamental substance that has mass and takes up space Element: By definition, each element has a unique number of protons in the nucleus Protons usually equal the amount of electrons. Because the amount protons and electrons are equal the charge of the atom is e lectrically equal Mass number: total number of protons and neutrons Isotope: Elements that have the same number of protons, but different numbers of neutrons 12C= 6 protons, 6 neutrons (most common) 14 C=6 protons, 8 neutrons (2 extra neutrons, radioactive carbon) Radioactive Decay: If an element has too many neutrons, it may be unstable and give off energy or radiation to get rid of extra neutrons. How do tracer studies work? Attach radioisotope to molecules and track where they go. Oxygen released from plants comes from splitting water (H O), not 2 2 Electrons orbit the nucleus in s hells. The first shell can hold electrons. The second can hold 8 If the outer shell is not full, the atom wants to g ain, share, or lose electrons. It will form chemical bonds with other atoms to complete its outer shell. Hydrogen: one electron in its first shell, wants 2 Helium: is not reactive Oxygen: first shell has 2 electrons second only has 6 and wants 8 Carbon: 2 electrons in the first shell. The second has 4 and wants 8. It can form up to 4 bonds to reach 8 Ion: when an atom gains or loses an electron giving it a positive or negative charge Ionic bond: when an electron is transferred making their charges opposite so that they stick together. Covalent bond: when two atoms share an electron to make up their outer shell Non polar bond: two identical atoms share electrons equally and show no difference in charge Polar bond: two or more different atoms share electrons unequally creating a positive and negative side Hydrogen Bond: When hydrogen atoms locked into polar covalent bonds stick to other atoms that are negatively charged. Water is a heat reservoir: Water absorbs a lot of heat before increasing in temperature, cools slowly Water is an excellent solvent: many things dissolve in water. Waters polar charges can keep other ions separated in a solution. Hydrophilic= water loving polar molecules ex. Salt, sugar Hydrophobic= water hating non polar molecules ex. Oils, fat, wax General solubility rule: Like dissolves like. Hydrophobic dissolves hydrophobic, hydrophilic dissolves hydrophilic Oil and gasoline float on water. Gasoline vapors are h eavier than air. . . .Soap molecules have both hy drophobic and hydrophilic parts.(called surfactant) Water is sticky: water sticks to itself creating surface tension. Why: hydrogen bonds Capillary action: the ability of water to rise in narrow tubes or to be drawn into very small openings Water evaporates: and takes heat with it Water takes heat away from the body 2 5 times faster than air. Ice is less dense than water: water expands when frozen and ice floats on top of water Why does salt melt ice? Because salt ions get in the way of water forming regular ice bonds Hard water: Has many positively charged ions. Doesn’t allow soap to stick to skin, but leaves a soap scum on surfaces. Soft water: too few ions. Doesn’t pull soap off your skin, skin feels slippery/ slimy
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