Intro to Anthropology notes, week 3
Intro to Anthropology notes, week 3 AN 1103
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessieka Little on Thursday September 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to AN 1103 at Mississippi State University taught by Professor Darcy Miller in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views.
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Date Created: 09/01/16
Lecture 4: 8/26/16 ● The context of Cultural History: archaeologists trying to figure out the order of things ● Lewis Binford (1931-2011) ● Ph.D. Michigan ● Influenced by Leslie White to an extent ● Energy capture - yes ● Neo-evolutionary stages - no ● Taught at Chicago, UCLA, UNM, SMU ● Processual Archaeology - ARCHAEOLOGY SHOULD BE A SCIENCE ● One of, if not the most, influential archaeologists ever ● Ecology matters ● The Post-Modern Critique ● History Matters ● Placing people into neo-evolutionary stages strips away historical context, which is worthy of exploration ● Academic Discourse is messy, and oftentimes leads to strange bedfellows ● Breakdown the arguments into arguments/themes ● Visualize them as a pendulum (back and forth) ● Trace their intellectual path ● Post-Processual Archaeology- Archaeology should be a history Nature vs Nurture Ethnocentrism vs Relativism Stages vs Trajectories Environment vs History Lecture 5: 8/29/16 ● Carolus Linneaus (1707-1778) ● Swedish Botanist ● Binomial species nomenclature ● Nested hierarchy ● Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genera, Species ● Jean Baptiste Lamark (1744-1829) ● Were fossils ancestors of living forms? ● Argued that organisms have: 1.) the ability to change in response to the environment 2.) The ability to activate this change when current form is obsolete ● Laws of Use and Disuse ● Charles Darwin (1808-1882) ● Common origin ● Natural selection Mutations produce variation Variation best suited for current environment will produce more offspring than others ● Lamark/Transformation vs. Darwin/Variation ● Fitness - measured by offspring that survive and reproduce ● Three principles Variation Heredity Natural Selection ● Driving force: "struggle for existence" ● Particulate inheritance ● Gregor Mendel (1822-1884) ● Austrian Monk ● Plant experiments (peas) ● Traits not blended from one generation to the next ● More discrete (separated) and probablistic ● Dominant versus recessive "particles" (genes) ● Principle of segregation Individual gets one particle for each trait from each parent ● William Bateson (1908) ● Homozygous vs. heterozygous ● Alleles - different forms a gene may take ● Chromosomes - store the DNA that contain hereditary info ● Mitosis vs. Meiosis ● Discontinuous vs Continuous variation Polygeny - many genes interacting Pleintropy - a single gene may control multiple traits ● 1950's- Structure of chromosomes identified (i.e. DNA) ● Watson ● Crick ● Rosalind Franklin ● Genome- all the genetic information of an organism, carried on the chromosomes in the cell nucleus ● Genotype- Genetic info in DNA ● Phenotype- Physical characteristics as determined by DNA ● Norm of reaction- Range of phenotypic outcomes for a given genotype in different environments ● Niche construction- when an organism actively perturbs the environment or moves into a different environment ● Human agency- the way people struggle, often against great odds, to exert control over there lives Individual decisions made in spite of (or bc of) social, environmental, or evolutionary constraints Lecture 6: 8/31/2016 ● James Watson's 2005 TED Talk ● "We are all just imperfect copies" ● Evolution ● Microevolution- short-termed evolution that occurs within a given species over a few generations ● Macroevolution- long-term evolutionary changes, especially their origin and diversification across space ● Species- a reproductive community of populations (reproductively isolated from others) that occupies a specific niche in nature ● Gene pool- the genes in a specific population ● Gene frequency- the frequency of gene variations in a pool ● Population genetics- a quantitative approach to study short-term evolution change in large populations ● Evolutionary processes ● Natural selection- descent with modification where 1.) variant individuals are produced because of mutation and 2.) variants best suited for current environment survive and reproduce more offspring than other variants ● Mutation- Creation of a new allele when a portion of the DNA molecule is altered (the ultimate source of all new variations) ● Gene Flow- the exchange of genes that occurs when a given population interacts with populations of the same species
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