Psychology Chapter 1 Notes
Psychology Chapter 1 Notes PSYC 1101
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kayla Patterson on Thursday September 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1101 at Georgia State University taught by Sorensen in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 36 views.
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Date Created: 09/01/16
1.The Scientific Attitude: Curious, Skeptical, and Humble a. Psychologists approach the world of behavior with a curious skepticism, persistently asking two questions: What do you mean? How do you know? b. Curiosity, skepticism and humility helped make modern science possible c. “For a lot of bad ideas, science is society's garbage disposal.” Describe what this tells us about the scientific attitude and what's involved in critical thinking. i. Many ideas and questions may be scrutinized scientifically, and the bad ones end up discarded as a result. Scientific thinking combines (1) curiosity about the world around us, (2) skepticism about unproven claims and ideas, and (3) humility about one's own understanding. This process leads us to evaluate evidence, assess conclusions, and examine our own assumptions, which are essential parts of critical thinking. 2.Critical thinking a. Thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, appraises the source, discerns hidden biases, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions. b.Critical injury i. What scientists have learned is not always believed ii. Helps identify effective polices 3.Psychology’s roots a. Aristotle theorized about learning and memory, motivation and emotion, perception and personality b. First discovered by Wundt in a laboratory c. Edward Bradford Titchener i. Structuralism ii. Aimed to discover the mind’s structure iii. Introspection: Training others to tell scientists about their feeling but failed because a person’s results could change d.William James i. Functionalism ii. Influence of Charles Darwin evolution by natural selection iii. James studied down-to-earth emotions, memories, willpower, habits, and moment-to-moment streams of consciousness. 4.Psychology’s first women a. Mary Whitton Calkins i. Became one of Wundt’s students passed her exam but was denied a degree from Harvard because she was a female ii. Became a memory researcher and the Americans Psychosocial association first female president. b.Margaret Floy Washburn i. Wrote a book called the “Animal Mind” ii. Second American Psychological association president c. Behaviorism i. John B. Watson 1. The view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2) 2. “The scientific study of observable behavior.” 3. Can observe and record people’s behavior as they are conditioned d.Freudian i. Emphasized the ways our unconscious thought processes and emotional responses to childhood experiences affect our behavior. e. Humanistic Psychology i. Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow ii. Focused on how current environmental influences can nature or limit growth potential and to the importance of having our needs for love and acceptance satisfied. f. Modern definition of psychology i. Science of behavior and mental processes 5.Contemporary Psychology a. Cognitive revolution i. how we perceive, process, and remember information, and the cognitive roots of anxiety, depression, and other psychological disorders. ii. Cognitive neuroscience 1. was birthed by the marriage of cognitive psychology (the science of mind) and neuroscience (the science of brain). This interdisciplinary field studies the brain activity underlying mental activity. 6.Evolutionary psychology and behavior genetics a. Nurture-nature i. The longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors. Today's science sees traits and behaviors arising from the interaction of nature and nurture. ii. Plato Vs. Aristotle 1. Plato: assumed that we inherit character and intelligence and that certain ideas are inborn. 2. Aristotle: countered that there is nothing in the mind that does not first come in from the external world through the senses. iii. Natural selection a. The principle that those chance inherited traits that better enable an organism to survive and reproduce in a particular environment will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations. iv. How did the cognitive revolution affect the field of psychology? 1. It recaptured the field's early interest in mental processes and made them legitimate topics for scientific study. v. What is contemporary psychology's position on the nature–nurture issue? 1. Psychological events often stem from the interaction of nature and nurture, rather than from either of them acting alone.
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