Cognitive Neuroscience Week 1 Notes
Cognitive Neuroscience Week 1 Notes PSYC 3122
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Freddi Marsillo on Thursday September 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3122 at George Washington University taught by Dr. Shomstein in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Neuroscience in Psychology at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 09/01/16
Cognitive Neuroscience Week 1 9/1/16 3:07 PM What is Cognitive Neuroscience? • Cognition o Thinking o How you process sensory information, & the environment around you o How you process information and produce an output o How you maintain attention, focus o Perception o How you store and recall memory o Emotions, feelings o Variety of higher mental processes (thinking, perceiving, imagining, speaking, acting, planning, etc.) • Neuroscience o Biological investigations of the brain • Cognitive Neuroscience consists of cognitive science, cognitive psychology, biology, and neuroscience (it is an interdisciplinary field) How does the brain enable mind? • Relations between brain and behavior • Better understanding of how complex cognitive and affective behavior is mediated by the brain Phineas Gage Iron rod through cheekbone and up through the forehead and skull – took a chunk of his brain out – piece of brain removed (part of frontal lobe) • Changes in his personality were noted • “Phineas stopped being Phineas” – exhibited inappropriate emotions, wouldn’t show up to plans made, was no longer the dependable person he was known to be • Part of his frontal lobe being removed was the reason for changes in his personality HM (Henry Molaison, 2008): the brain that launched a thousand investigations • Epileptic in 20s in 1953 • Seizures from age 10, uncontrollable • Despite absence of epileptogenic activity, bilateral medial temporal lobectomy • Epicenter of region in temporal lobe was removed from both sides (bilateral), even though seizures are only caused by electrical activity on one side of the brain • After surgery: o Cured – no more seizures o Normal intelligence (IQ 112) o Cooperative and motivated o Normal perceptual and reasoning skills o BUT: ▯ Unable to form NEW long-term memories HM’s brain • Only half hippocampus removed o The rest atrophied Multiple memory systems • Long-term memory o Declarative memory (explicit memory) • Short-term memory o Sensory memory o Short-term/working memory The History of Cognitive Neuroscience – How did we get here? • History of human thought • History of biology, psychology, and medicine • Central issues: how do biological systems work? • Undifferentiated whole blob or smaller subcomponents? o Localization vs. antilocalization (mass action/equipotentiality) • Can function be altered in any way? o Dedicated? o Plastic? History • Where is “seat of mind”? • Anecdotal reports Early conceptualizations The mind-body problem • How from physical arise feelings/thoughts/emotions • “Seat of the mind” o Liver o Heart • Aristotle o Brain is cooling fluid, cognitive product of the heart • Galen o Ventricles o Medical theories uncontested until 1543 • Descartes – dualism (two different substances) o Pineal gland (mind immortal, body physical and mortal) o Influences flowing spirits through ventricles • Spinoza – dual-aspect theory (two different explanations) o E.g. an electron is both a wave and a particle • Others o To fill skull Defining moment – Andreas Vesalius – Renaissance Phrenologists th Gall and Spurzheim (early 19 century) • 35 areas (different functions) • Brain grows to accommodate functions • Anatomical personology • Localizationist Anti-localizationist (1824) Pierre Flourens • All sensations, all perceptions, and all volitions occupy the same seat in these cerebral organs. The faculty of sensation, perception and volition is then essentially one faculty • Aggregate field (mass action) • Big debate: o Localization versus equipotentiality (skull palpators versus bird-brain ablators) Modern neuropsychology Hughlings Jackson (late 1800s) • Characteristic way of movement (tonic and clonic jerks) • Some topography in epilepsy • Suggestions for experiments to test observations • Many regions contribute to a certain function Paul Broca 1861 • Mr. Leborgne (Tan) • Aphemie (Aphasia) • Carl Wernicke (1876) Electrical stimulation Frisch and Hitzig (1870) • Electric stimulation in dog to produce movement • Different functions, different cells? Neural Doctrine • German neuroanatomists (early 1900s) o Brodmann, Nissl, Von Bonin and Bailey, Von Economo, Purkinje, Freud, von Helmholtz • Golgi (“the black reaction”) 1873 invents silver nitrate staining method – syncytium, common cytoplasm • Cajal, 1889 – neurons are discrete cells, signal transmission o Neuron doctrine • At least some form of localization agreed upon Cellular architecture • Korbinian Brodmann cytoarchitectonic maps (1909) o Over 50 areas o Consistent with localizationists Lashley: Mass Action • Maze learning with rats • Lesions not impair learning or performing task th 20 Century • Penfield and Rasmussen 1951 – 400 patients Possible resolution Complex behaviors • Many areas participate Simple sub-processes • Localized Psychology story – the black box • Measure behavior and study the mind • Rationalists: o Meaning of life through right thinking (happiness, public good) • Empiricists: o Knowledge comes from sensory experience o Associations between stimulus and response via learning (Ebbinghaus, Fechner, Thorndike) o Behaviorist tradition *Ventricles = holes in the brain Demise of behaviorism • But: some behavior property of mind alone o Visual illusions • Emphasis on built-in properties (mental events): o Internal representations, mental maps and models o Newell and Simon o Chomsky, complexity of language is built into the brain Cognitive Neuroscience • How cerebral cortex is organized and functions • Requires sensitivity to biology The rise of imaging: structural MRI • Can see normal brains and brains with lesions Functional MRI • Records blood flow 9/1/16 3:07 PM 9/1/16 3:07 PM
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