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Severe and Unusual Weather Week 2 Notes AND Guest Speaker Notes

by: Rhiannon Cobb

Severe and Unusual Weather Week 2 Notes AND Guest Speaker Notes METR 140

Marketplace > University of Nebraska Lincoln > Science > METR 140 > Severe and Unusual Weather Week 2 Notes AND Guest Speaker Notes
Rhiannon Cobb
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

These notes cover everything we discussed on both Tuesday and Thursday, along with our Webcast speaker a meteorologist from Puerto Rico.
Severe and Unusual Weather
Orf, Leigh
Class Notes
Science, weather
25 ?




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rhiannon Cobb on Thursday September 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to METR 140 at University of Nebraska Lincoln taught by Orf, Leigh in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Severe and Unusual Weather in Science at University of Nebraska Lincoln.


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Date Created: 09/01/16
Tuesday, August 30, 2016 Severe and Unusual Weather Week 2 Air Pressure, Latent Heating, Hurricane Formation, and Current Weather - What Class will cover today: • Becoming familiar with isobars, what they mean, and how they relate to wind • Learn generally how air flows through a hurricane • How hurricanes strengthen • Learn how to look for one indication of these processes in satellite observations of storms - Quiz results/answers are in the powerpoint on blackboard - What is latent heat? • There are forces holding water molecules together in ice and liquid water - some extra energy (heat) is required to force the water molecules apart and keep them apart • Can you feel latent heat? - What happens when you get out of a swimming pool or a shower? • You feel cold, as the water evaporates from your skin • extra energy (heat) is needed to evaporate the water… that heat comes from your skin, which is why you feel cold - The opposite happens in condensation • the extra energy (heat) is no longer needed to keep the water molecules apart - therefore that energy is released back as heat - the heat warms the surrounding area - Isobars • we use isobars to show air pressure on weather maps • this shows area of high and low pressure 1 Tuesday, August 30, 2016 • we can also predict the winds from looking at the isobars • today you’ll familiarize yourself with isobars by drawing some of them • Rules for Isobars: - Always label your isobars - Isobars should never cross - Don't draw isobars beyond where you have data - Higher pressure on one side, lower pressure on the other - If you have an area of low pressure with higher pressure in all directions, label it with and L - If you have an area of high pressure with lower pressure in all directions, label it with an H - Air Pressure • Q: if we are standing on the ground at particular location, what would cause the air pressure to fall? - The air pressure will lower if there less air pressing down from above • Start with a thunderstorm - Thunderstorm over the ocean • In the storm cloud air rises and water vapor condenses into liquid water • what happens as a result of condensation? - latent heat is released and warms the air - what happens to air when it’s heated? - To summarize • Latent heating from thunderstorms at the core of the storm causes the air to expand upward • High pressure forms in the upper atmosphere • Air spirals outward, causing air pressure to fall at the surface 2 Tuesday, August 30, 2016 Thursday, September 1, 2016 Latent Heating, Hurricane Development, Instability - Temperature and Dewpoint • Dew point measures the amount of water vapor in the air • If air cools to the dew point, it’s saturated • If the air keeps cooling, condensation will occur - Rising Air • Why does a Hot air balloon rise? - The air is warmer (and less dense) than the air around it, so it rises - What happens to air as it rises? • If air rises, its higher up, and has less air pressing down on it from above • The air expands and cools - Exercise (see attached paper at the end of notes) If air is unsaturated, it cools at 10°C per 1 km • • If air is unsaturated, it cools at 6°C per 1 km • Use air rising from the surface - Start at the surface and draw up from there… - Units: 3 Tuesday, August 30, 2016 - Latent Heating Exercise: • Does the latent heating make a big difference? • Is latent heating important for thunderstorms? - At what level does the air become saturated as it rises? • A. Surface • B. 1 km C. 2km • • D. 4km • E. it never becomes saturated Speaker Notes - Hermine. • What stopped Hermine from forming early on? - Dry air and saharan dust from Africa dries out the area and there isn’t enough moisture to develop into a tropical storm sooner. Once it has moist air it was more favorable of conditions and it was able to develop. - Moisture, low vertical wind sheer, and water temperature • Hermine crossed over the southeast into the atlantic, it was compared to Sandy. Comparisons between Hermine and Sandy - Sandy: was a hurricane before it made land fall, but once it made landfall but it became a post tropical cyclone. It did not have tropical characteristics anymore. So the hurricane center could not continue warnings and services. • The weather services had to take over, instead of hurricane warnings being issued, the weather service had to issue high wind warnings. A hurricane warning people take it more seriously than a high wind warning. (Especially in the winter time). - These warnings were very confusing for the people. 4 Tuesday, August 30, 2016 - Which is why the meteorology community got together and decided the hurricane center would issue tropical storm warnings and the threat was then taken more seriously - Hermine, there are no more advisories on hermine, all the weather models were showing hermine being stationary outside of the new jersey coast line. Which means you’re going to have lots of storms and high winds along that cost while it is stationary. • Even though it’s a weaker system, with it becoming stationary it still means 2-3 days of high wind speed and lots of rain fall which can cause a lot of serious damage. • Hermine was further east so the impacts were not as serious or detrimental. - Hurricane Hunter Aircrafts How does a dropping work? And how do they drop on the storm? • - They measure, temperature, air pressure, wind speed and wind direction. The aircraft drops multiple of these throughout the storm not just one. • The aircraft flies around the storm and drops multiple dropsons and that way meteorologists will have a better configuration of the storm and imaging for the storm. 5


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