Chapter 2: Forms in Jazz
Chapter 2: Forms in Jazz MUS 114
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maria Sales on Thursday September 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MUS 114 at University of Illinois at Chicago taught by Madsen, Christopher A. in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see Jazz History in College of Architecture, Design, and the Arts at University of Illinois at Chicago.
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Date Created: 09/01/16
August 30, 2016 Chapter 2: Forms in Jazz Like form in African music; jazz form is cyclic, each being defined rhythmically and harmonically. Each cycle is called a chorus. Blues Form Poetic form: three-line asymmetric stanza (A A B) with each line consisting of two vocal measures (call) followed by two instrumental measures (response) to make a 12-measure chorus The basic harmonic form of 12-bar blues consists of three chords: I (tonic) for the first four measures, then IV chord for two measures; tonic for two; V chord for two; and tonic for two Often chords are added and/or substituted. Turn-around or turn-back: chord progression that leads the ear to a new part of the cycle or the beginning of a new cycle. “West End Blues” (Louis Armstrong) has both chord substitutions turnarounds. Modern jazz blues: “Now’s the Time” (Charlie Parker). Rhythmically different Blues can be interrupted by introductions, modulations, and contrasting sections, but is still a blues regardless of tempo, rhythmic groove and interruptions. It is the foundation of rhythm and blues and of rock and roll. 32-Bar Pop Song Form: A A B A Based on songs of the 1930s to the 1960s; often used in Broadway musicals or films. These songs were often in two parts: verse and refrain. Jazz musicians rarely use the verse Form: eight bars (A) repeated (A again) ending with a turnaround to the contrasting eight-bar B section (the bridge) and then the last A. Unlike the blues, song form refers to the tune’s harmony and melody, not the words. Unlike the blues, this form is not defined by a particular harmonic progression From 1930 to around 1950, jazz musicians used popular songs as vehicles for improvising. Knowing the melody gave listeners a way to keep their place within the tune once the cycle of choruses or refrains was established “Rhythm changes” is a reference to particular song-form chord progression associated with Gershwin’s “I’ve Got Rhythm” which became popular with jazz musicians (although they omitted the last two measures and made up their own melodies) August 30, 2016 Improvisation How exactly does a jazz ensemble manage to compose music spontaneously and keep together? How does the seemingly mystifying skill of improvisation work? Rhythm Section: Bass The bass has the most restricted role. It must play basic harmony and keep time (walking bass) The bassist can also play a pedal point—the pitches do not move. Piano Usually the piano is the primary harmony instrument, but other instrument can also serve this function By comping, the pianist can also take part in a variable layer rhythmically. In Performance Big Bands Starting in the 1930s and continuing until after World War II, big bands of 16 players became popular. The still exist, mostly on university campuses, but there are some new professional bands as well. Big bands are grouped by instruments in sections of trumpets, trombones, reeds, and rhythm section instruments They use arrangements: composed scores for the band, with individual parts for each musician. There are places designated for improvisation in arrangements. In this way, the big band balances composition and improvisation Small combos Typically consist of a few horns and a rhythm section Derive from small dance halls and private jam sessions.
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