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Chapter 9 Notes

by: Cierra Beyers

Chapter 9 Notes PSY-P 101

Cierra Beyers
GPA 4.05
Introduction to Psychology
Jeff Huber

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About this Document

Here are the notes for Chapter 9! They should be really helpful for the upcoming test
Introduction to Psychology
Jeff Huber
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cierra Beyers on Thursday March 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY-P 101 at Indiana University taught by Jeff Huber in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 167 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Indiana University.


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Date Created: 03/26/15
Chapter 9 324 and 326 OUR THINKING 1 Forming Concepts a Concep mental grouping category of similar objects events ideas and people that most people agree belong together b How do we form concepts 1 Prototypes mental images or best ex Of category 0 Matching new items to prototype is quick easy method for sorting items 0 Match using defining attributes 2 Defining attributes features that make object acceptable member of category 0 Ex concept of a bachelor a Male b Unmarried c Adult Good of Categorization 0 Adaptive seeing something novel generalize lnferential infer use or meaning of object 0 Recognition don t have to rediscover something each time different types of coffee cups 0 Agreement when we talk to each other we understand a gun is a gun 5 Disadvantages of Categorization 1 Categorization ignores important individual differences a Hidden prejudices 2 Defining attributes don t always work a Most categories have members we cant define by any single feature i Dog with two legs is still a dog ii Bird with no wings is still a bird 3 Fuzzy boundaries a Family resemblance members of category share certain core features but not all members have features b There is a fuzzy boundary for race c Can be problematic when people get put into categories 4 No good prototype a Some categories don t have a good prototype i Prototypical art abstract art vs other types of art 5 Categorized in different categories a Is chess a sport Connections and Memory 0 We organize categories into hierarchical structures that guide recognition 2 Solving Problems a 5 strategies for solving problems 1 Trial and Error 0 Often tedious time intensive 0 Thomas Edison 2 Representing the Problem 0 Problem Representation using info 3 Developing Strategies 0 Algorithms step by step procedures that guarantee a solution a FOIL Heuristics shortcuts simple thinking strategies that help make judgment 4 Insight 0 Solutions seem to magically pop into mind 0 Consolidation moving info to part of brain for LTM Aha moment 0 Sudden rather than systematic 0 Ex a Chimp video used water to get the peanut b Chimp video using help to move stone to get to food 0 A light bulb really does go off 5 Incubation Effect 0 Take a break 0 Brain keeps working on it 0 Activation of other nodes b What prevents us from solving problems 1 Functional Fixedness see objects and their functions in fixed and typical ways Duncker s candle mounting problem 2 Fixation Inability to see problem from fresh perspective 0 Arrange 6 matches into 4 equilateral triangles a Arrange into 3D instead of 2D 3 Mental Set 0 Inability to relyapproach problems with mind set of what has worked before 0 Einstein 0 Changing mental set a Analogies i Mutilated checkerboard problem 0 Make it easier by using another similar problem 4 Conformation Bias 0 Seeking only information and evidence confirming our ideas rather than refuting them 0 Confirming evidence is weighted more than contradictory evidence 0 Ex Therapeutic Touch 0 Video a Sir Ken Robinson i Do schools help or hurt creativity Critical Thinking and Problem Solving 0 Randy Gobel cow and calf in middle of night 0 Both died 0 There were two calves and they had one leg of each one 0 Algorithms methodical logical rule or procedure guaranteeing solution 0 Computers use algorithms humans use heuristics simple strategy for making decisions 3 Making decisions and forming judgments a 6 Heuristics for making decisions and forming judgments 1 Availability Heuristic base decision on which alternative most available in mind 0 Words starting with R or with R being the 3rd letter 0 Overconfidence 0 Horses kill people more than sharks Representative Heuristic solution which best represents what I consider ideal prototype solution 0 We tend to ignore statistics 0 Robert wears glasses reads a lot and is quiet Is he more likely to be a librarian or a farmer a Farmer because there are more farmers than librarians in his town Problem Substitution Heuristic substitute easy question for a harder one Quick easy good way to make decisions 0 Lazy system 2 lets system 1 decide Affect Heuristic letting likes and dislikes determine your beliefs and judgments 0 If you don t like tattoos you believe the risks for them are high Mood Heuristic decision based on current mood 0 People were asked about the number of dates that had recently been on and how happy they were When they were asked how happy they were first there was no correlation When they were asked about dates first there was a correlation because the date question caused an emotion trigger lntuitive Prediction make rapid decision with out much conscious thought 0 gut feeling 0 Based on experience 0 Ex Highly intelligent women marry men who are less intelligent a WHY Your intuitive prediction says that women are just looking for someone who isnt as smart as them so they can be the smartest one in the relationship b If you take out the intuitive prediction and look at statistics regression of the mean Statistically the man will be closer to average since the woman is so far from average 12 Powers of Intuition 1 2 HE 7 8 9 Blindsight see but not consciously recognize SplitBrain person corpus callosum point to info but cant realize it verbalize Infants Intuitive Learning language and physics Moral Intuition quick gut feeling Divided Attention and Priming unattended into processed sign along highway Everyday Perception parallel processing of info reading crossing street Implicit Memory automatic processing Heuristics efficient and adaptive Creativity spontaneous novel valuable ideas 10Socia and Emotional Intelligence 11 Body Response before conscious perception 12Thin Slices detect traits from mere seconds of behavior Perils of Intuition pop 9 51 Can be inaccurate which leads to poor decisions and judgments Extremely rare events are vivid in our memory making them easy to recall Fears of flying Muslims swimming in oceans Lack of vivid memory unconcerned about things such as global warming Hindsight Bias Confirmation Bias Illusory Correlation 2 things don t have a correlation but people think they do Perceiving Order in Random Events Memory Construction and Reconstruction Interviewer lIIusion overconfident based on interview alone Attribution Effect overlook other factors Mispredicting of our feelings and behaviors 10 Effects that Influence our Decision Making 1 Halo Effect 0 Impression of person biases our feelings thoughts judgments of the person 0 If we like them we give them more positive attributes Overconfidence Effect 0 Overestimate accuracy of our beliefs judgments decisions 0 Good entrepreneurial spirit restaurants 0 Bad 2 opposing generals are overconfident resulting in an unavoidable war Loss Aversion Effect 0 People weigh losses much more than gains twice as much 0 More apt to makes decision that avoid losses 0 Over insured people 0 Athletes perform to not lose 0 David Kahneman video about overconfidence Belief Perseverance Effect 0 Clinging to initial conceptions after discredited 0 Once beliefs form and are justified it takes more evidences to change them than it did to form them TheoryInduced Blindness Effect 0 Inability to see shortcomings of theory once accepted 0 No way sun is the center of the universe Good thing Copernicus didn t think this way Framing Effect 0 Way issue posed and how alternatives are presented affects our choice 0 80 lean looks better than 20 fat even though they mean the same thing 0 Action framed to ensure gain and avoid loss 0 Leads to irrational choices 0 Generals dilemma worksheet question were the same just posed differently which resulted in different answers Anchoring Effect 0 Rely too heavily on 1St piece of information offered 0 Gandhi s age he died when he was 78 Endowment Effect 0 Ascribing more value to something simply because we own it 0 Unwilling to sell a bottle of wine for more than they bought it for Sunk Cost Fallacy Effect 0 Investing additional resources in losing decision when better options available 0 We ve come this far 10 BaseRate Fallacy Effect 0 Ignoring or underusing baserate information and usebe influences by distinctive features of situation We can count on our ability to ignore our own ignorance David Kahneman


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