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Week 1 notes Tester

by: Maddy Bunyard

Week 1 notes Tester 1063 HIS

Maddy Bunyard

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Europe before colonization
Early U.S. History
Dr. Peter Messer
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maddy Bunyard on Thursday September 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1063 HIS at Mississippi State University taught by Dr. Peter Messer in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Early U.S. History in History at Mississippi State University.

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Date Created: 09/01/16
Early US History 8/19/16 Europe Before America Key Questions: • What were the major changes in the European World before the discovery of America? • How did those changes prepare the way for European colonization? Europe 1450 • Smaller principalities • Holy Roman Empire • Spain, France, and England have colonies in America at the time -Transformations in Europe 1. Demographic • Population declined through 1500 because of the Black Death • The disease took out 1/3 of Europe: 50% England, 40% France, 30% Spain • Long-term consequences of population decline and Black Death are: - Peasants are more exposed to disease so more die; someone still had to work in the fields, so the remaining peasants raised prices for their labor - Entrepreneurs owned and gained more land; they invested in the cities and became merchants, gaining more income; put sheep on all their extra lands and made business from the wool - Cities were gaining in population and were flourishing - Kings were weak politically, but were gaining tax money in exchange for protection from citizens • Long-term effect of Black Death à created a form of Capitalism in Europe 2. Technological • Agriculture: fields, plows, power - Crop rotation becomes common so that leads to more food - Fewer have to farm because of cities • Military: gunpowder and pikes; castles to forts - Canons and soldiers are expensive - Protection and military becomes expensive - Kings have this money because of taxes (Military feeds into kings’ power) 3. Political • New Governments - Centralized: smaller states, local authorities, smaller units - Decentralized: power is distributed over a wider range • Nation States are formed: politically unified • Spain- Reconquista 790-1492 - Moores and Muslims are drawn out - The country becomes reconquered - Becomes a very militarized society - Facilitates concentration of power - Kings grant land to soldiers à Soldiers pay taxes to the King à This creates a powerful monarchy - Solidifies Christian and Catholic faith • France- 100 Years War 1337-1453 - War with England - There is less land to distribute than Spain - Sells nobility (born noble, or not born noble) - If you have the money, you can become noble - Less unified and powerful than Spain • England- War of Roses 1421-1487 - Suffered the most from the Black Death - Basically a fight over whom gets the throne - Henry Tudor (VII) and Parliament (puts together army to take over the throne and wins) - Henry has no direct claim to the throne; he has a line through his mom; he marries Elizabeth of York for that connection - Merchants of England hate the war because it takes away from their businesses - Henry turns to the merchants of the cities; “support me and I will bring peace”; merchants want Parliament more powerful; a deal is made - Parliament is made up of the “nobles” that rose from peasantry and merchants - Parliament and the King now basically split power 4. Religious- Reformation of Europe • The Catholic Church is too powerful • There is now a fight about religion • Spain - Begins a war against the Protestants - Begins to spread faith overseas - Heavily Catholic and begins to turn on own people (killed if not Catholic enough) • France - Goes into major chaos - Too many nobles demand authority - Long, religious war (4 million people died) - Dominantly Catholic, but overall a weak society • England - Elizabeth I rises into power - Her father establishes the Church of England - People get very angry (they weren’t aware of the change and didn’t want a forced religion) - She turns to the Puritans and extends the power of Parliament in exchange for support from the people


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