Chapter 3: The First World War: A Very Short Introduction
Chapter 3: The First World War: A Very Short Introduction HIST 3121
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cydney Tinsley on Thursday September 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 3121 at University of Colorado Denver taught by Michael Kozakowski in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see World at War 1914-1945 in History at University of Colorado Denver.
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Date Created: 09/01/16
Cydney Tinsley World at War The First World War: A Very Short Introduction Chapter 3 Chapter 3 Popular Reactions 1. Greeted with enthusiasm by all except France. 2. Viewed as necessary in order to survive, and that progress was made only from competition. 3. Artists, writers, and musicians felt the war opened up a world of possibilities and inspiration for their crafts. 4. Propaganda, feudal loyalty, and religious sanctions all helped to mass mobilize and enthuse the public. Who Was Fighting For What 1. Austria was fighting for the preservation of their empire. 2. Russia was fighting for the protection of their kin. 3. France was fighting in self-defense. 4. British were fighting to uphold the Law of Nations. 5. Germans were fighting on behalf of Austria-Hungary and to repel those threating to keep them from making World Power. The Invasion of Belgium 1. Germany, wanting to keep the war short, calculated that they needed to defeat the French within 6 weeks in order to allow enough forces to move to help the expected Russian onslaught. 2. To achieve this, they created the Schlieffen Plan, which was to go around through Belgium and attack the French from behind. 3. Belgium didn’t like this plan, and in order to keep out Germany, they built a big wall at Liege. German heavy artillery knocked down said wall and Belgium surrendered on August 17 . th 4. Most Belgians ran. Those who stayed were treated poorly and some 5,000 were shot and executed. Battle of the Marne 1. French: Took the offensive into Alsace-Lorraine and the flank of the German attackers. 2. The French, despite their efforts, took a beating by the German’s heavy artillery. 3. On August 30 , Germany took their troops South-East of Paris, (not to Paris, as they were ordered). 4. On September 4thy, the French attacked the Germans. 5. Germany went to meet the French, opening a gap in their forces that the French and British were able to infiltrate. 6. Germany then retreated. Battle of Ypres 1. Germany tried to outflank the Allies in the North, the coast of which was being held by Belgium. Cydney Tinsley World at War The First World War: A Very Short Introduction Chapter 3 2. Britain helped Belgium, until Belgium had to retreat on October 6 . Then Britain moved next to the Belgians. th 3. On October 30 , Germany attacked with an army of mostly untrained, underage soldiers. 4. Germany’s army was mowed down by the British. 5. This battle came to be known to the Germans as the ‘Massacre of the Innocents’. 6. Ypres saw: a. The end of the old British army. b. The end of mobile war on the Western Front. Eastern Front 1. Russia felt pressured into helping both Serbia and France. 2. In order to do both, Russia split their army. One force they sent to Poland/Prussian to fight against the Germans. The other army they sent to Galicia to fight the Austrian-Hungarians. 3. On August 15 , the first army moved in on Germany, who withdrew. The German leader was replaced and a new tactic was tried, which was to send a small army against the Prussians and reserve most forces for Galicia. 4. This plan worked because Germany managed to intercept Russian messages. 5. The battle that resulted was known as the Battle of Tannenburg, which lasted from August 27-30. 50,000 Russian troops were killed or wounded, and another 90,000 were taken prisoner. 6. While all of this was happening, the Austrians moved in on Serbia, but bad tactics cost them 30,000 men. 7. Russia forced the Austrians to fall back. In doing so, the Austrians lost another 350,000. 8. Later on, the Austrians launched an offensive to Przemsl, but later ended up surrendering.
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