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What is Abnormal Psych

by: Nia Mosley

What is Abnormal Psych Psyc 277

Marketplace > Xavier University > Psychology (PSYC) > Psyc 277 > What is Abnormal Psych
Nia Mosley
Xavier University

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About this Document

This and other chapters will be on exam one
Abnormal Psychology
Catherine Linn
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nia Mosley on Thursday September 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 277 at Xavier University taught by Catherine Linn in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Xavier University.

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Date Created: 09/01/16
What is Abnormal Psychology?  Defining Abnormal Psychology  o Scientific study of abnormal behavior in an effort to describe, predict,  explain, and change abnormal patterns of functioning  Two cases: Johanne  Cries every night   Fearful for and pessimistic about the future   Believes that the world is a dark, ugly place Alberto  Hearing mysterious voices   Feels confused and in turmoil  Family and friends are concerned Defining Abnormalities   Deviance  o Different, extreme, unusual o Bizarre  Distress o Unpleasant and upsetting  Dysfunction o Interfering with daily activities  Danger  o Risk of harming self of others Deviance = from behaviors, thoughts, and emotions that differ markedly from  society’s ideas about proper functioning   From social norms o Stated and unstated rule for proper conduct   Judgements of abnormality vary, as norms grow from a particular culture  Abnormality may also depend on specific circumstance  o Johanne’s case Distress= according to most clinical theorist, behavior, ideas, or emotions have to  cause distress before they can be labeled abnormal Dysfunction= behavior interferes with daily functioning   Dysfunction alone does not necessitate psychological abnormality Danger= dangerous behavior may become dangerous to self or others  Careless, hostile, confused Research suggests, however, that danger is more often the exception rather than the rule Treatment  Initiated after it is determined a person is suffering from disordered thinking  or behavior   Treatment, or therapy, is a procedure designed to change abnormal behavior  to more normal behavior  Therapy is when a sufferer seeks relief from a trained healer, and they  engage in a series of contacts to change emotions, attitudes, and behavior  Therapy is not any activity that brings relief  Therapy generally is done to relieve suffering   Unfortunately, treatment is inconsistent  o Differing goals or aims Current Treatment Needs  In a given year, 30% of adults and 19% of children and adolescents in the  US experience serious psychological disturbances and need treatment   Many others have difficulty coping at various times  Early Views of Pathology  Trephination during the Stone Age: drilling holes in the skull in ancient  times for the purpose of releasing evil spirits and curing mental  dysfunction  Early Egyptian, Chinese, and Hebrew writings all account for  psychological deviance by evil spirits o Exorcism is another practice Greek and Roman Views   500 BC to 500 AD  Hippocrates: o Psychiatric illnesses had natural causes o Imbalance of the four fluids, or humors, that flowed through the body: blood, phlegm, yellow bile (mania), and black bile (depression) o Treatment attempted to rebalance the humors Europe in the Middle Ages  Demonology returns (500­1350 AD)  Church rejected scientific forms of investigation, including those into mental illness  Religious beliefs dominated   Abnormality was seen as conflict between good and evil The Renaissance  Across Europe, increased religious focus on humane and loving treatment of those with mental disorders o City of Gheel: community focused on mental health  Rise of asylums­ initially with good intentions, these were institutions to  care for the mentally ill  Care and conditions in asylums were terrible th 19  Century: Reform and Moral Treatment   Treatment and care in asylums improved  Moral treatment, led by Phillipe Pinel, a physician in an asylum in France,  and William Tuke, an English Quaker who housed many with mental illness  Moral treatment emphasized humane and respectful techniques  Dorothea Dix campaigned in state legislature for moral treatment Decline of Moral Treatment   End of the 19  century, reversal of moral treatment  o Money and staff shortages  o Declining recovery rates o Overcrowding  o Emergence of prejudice  Journalist Elizabeth Cochrane Seaman (Nellie Bly) o Investigative journalism in asylum th Early 20  Century  Somatogenic perspective  o Abnormal psychological functioning has physical causes o Some biological discoveries were made  Psychogenic perspective o Abnormal psychological functioning has psychological causes Somatogenic perspective  Despite initial optimism, biological approaches yielded disappointment  results early on until some effective medications were finally discovered  Tooth extraction, tonsillectomy, hydrotherapy, and ultimately, lobotomy  In some circles, led to proposals for Eugenic Sterilization, elimination of  individuals’ ability to reproduce Psychogenic perspective  Hypnotism  o Trancelike mental state during which a person becomes extremely  suggestible   Freud  Psychoanalysis o Unconscious processes are at the root of functioning individuals  gain insight where clinicians help troubled individuals gain insight  into unconscious processes  Outpatient therapy The past 60­70 years  1950s  o Psychotropic medications o Antipsychotic drugs­ correct confused and distorted thinking o Antidepressant drugs­ lift mood o Antianxiety drugs­ reduce tension and worry  Deinstitutionalization  o Releasing hundreds of thousands of patients from public mental  hospitals  Current Treatment  Before 1950, almost all outpatient care took form of private psychotherapy  Outpatient care has now become the primary mode of treatment   When hospitalization is needed, it is short­term hospitalization, and then,  ideally, outpatient psychotherapy and medications in community settings  Since 1950s, outpatient care has continued to be the preferred mode of  treatment for those with moderate disturbances   Although this type of care was once exclusively private psychotherapy, most health insurance plans now cover various settings, as well as specialty care


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