Anatomy & Physiology Biochemistry Notes
Anatomy & Physiology Biochemistry Notes 80197 - BIOL 2220 - 001
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80197 - BIOL 2220 - 001
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courtney Luber on Thursday September 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 80197 - BIOL 2220 - 001 at Clemson University taught by John R Cummings in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology I in Biology at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 09/01/16
08/30/16 Biochemistry Definition – chemical composition and reactions of living matter Biocompounds o Inorganic – no carbon Water, salts, acids, bases They dissociate; do not form electrolytes o Organic – do contain carbon Potential to form covalent bonds Do not dissociate; give us electrolytes Important inorganic compounds o Water 60-80% of human body is water; most abundant Properties: High heat capacity – resistant to changes in temperature (we have a homeostatic body temp) High heat of vaporization – water requires a lot of heat to turn it from a liquid to a gas o Has cooling powers when vaporizes Universal solvent – a lot of things can dissolve in water o Ionic molecules & polar compounds can dissolve in water o Ability to transport these ions o For anything to biologically active, it has to be in a solution o *solution – a solute dissolved in a solvent Hydrolysis/condensation – all reactions in the body are catabolic or anabolic; anything is either a decomposition or synthesis reaction o Involves water most of the time o Dehyrdation – take water away o Hydrolysis – add water Cushion – water is a cushion between the bones and joints; cerebral spinal fluid that protects us from head trauma o Salts Substances that dissociate to form cations and anions (electrolytes); salts create electrolytes when they dissociate Movement of charged particles gives us electrical energy Kidneys regulating and maintaining salt balance o Acids Substances that dissociate and increase hydrogen ion concentration Hydrogen ion will have a positive charge (more protons) Acids are proton donors Can also create electrical currents through dissociation Increase hydrogen ion concentration of a solution o Bases Reduces hydrogen ion concentration proton accepter pH – measurement of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution o expressed on a scale from 0-14 o 0-6 acidic o 7 neutral o 8-14 basic o Measurement of hydrogen ion concentrations in a solution in moles/liters o Is homeostatic – maintained by neutralization and buffering o Different organs have different optimal pH’s but have to be within homeostatic pH o Neutralization – the addition of an acid and a base When we combine, we get water and salt (neutral solution) o Buffering – a process in which the addition of small amounts of acid or base do not result in pH change Resists pH changes by accepting or liberating hydrogen ions We constantly flood our bodies with acidic or basic food (i.e. coca-cola) Organic compounds o Carbohydrates Sugars and starches Cell is made up of between 1-2% carbohydrates Main function is to be a source of energy Major player in energy production is glucose most easily enters glycolysis We can get energy from any form of biocompounds, but the most common source is glucose Monosaccharides – the smallest forms of sugar; individual units; simple sugars; taste sweet; can be absorbed immediately along the wall of the digestive tract; can be immediately used to provide energy when in bloodstream Named based on the number of carbons they contain 5 carbons pent- 6 carbons hex- Always have a ratio of carbon to hydrogen to oxygen (1-2-1) Disaccharides 2 sugars o Glucose + glucose = maltose o Galactose + glucose = lactose o Glucose + fructose = sucrose Have to be digested before absorbed Polysaccharides Many sugars Long chains Also have to be broken down to release monosaccharides Don’t taste sweet Not water soluble Stored differently in plants and animals o Animals store them as glycogen o Plants store them as starch Humans then build own monosaccharides o Lipids Can exist as liquids or solids at room temp Solid – fat Liquid – oil Not water soluble, though they can be dissolved by other solvents such as other lipids Neutral fats “triglyceride” Consists of glycerol + 3 fatty acids Nonpolar Function primarily as energy storage molecules Function in insulation Kidneys are packed in fat because they are close to the skin They also protect organs Classes o Saturated – any triglyceride in which the fatty acids do not contain any double bonds between the carbons Predominantly animal fats – meat Solid at room temperature Consumption increases cholesterol levels in our body o Unsaturated – contains a single double bond in one of the fatty acids Oils at room temp Predominantly plant based Do not cause any increase in cholesterol; no effect o Polyunsaturated – 2 or more double bonds Plant based Oil at room temp Reduce cholesterol o Trans fats - Oil that has been solidified in a lab by flooding it with hydrogen ions Take unsaturated fat and make them saturated Chips have more flavor when saturated fats are used Grossly increase cholesterol and heart disease o Omega 3 fatty acids Omega – far edge of the fatty acid chain Has a double bond at the third carbon from the tail Shown to reduce cholesterol Predominantly fish oils o Omega 6 fatty acids “ “ But double bond on sixth carbon Phospholipids Triglyceride but one of the fatty acids has been switched with a phosphate Polar head and nonpolar tail Double layer of phospholipids (plasma membrane; phospholipid bilayer) Amphipathic molecule – molecule with polar and nonpolar parts Steroids Made from 4 interlocking hydrocarbon rings i.e. testosterone, progesterone steroids are part of endocrine system regulation fat based & fat soluble steroid hormones) Eicosanoids local signaling molecules produced in one part of the body and affect that place modified triglyceride o Proteins 10-30% of the mass of the cell Made up of amino acids Linked together, they’re called polypeptides Peptide bonds link proteins together Nitrogen contained in protein Proteins in human body made of 20 amino acids Some are only available from animals Roles: structural, functional Primary structure – linear sequence of all of the amino acids that make up the protein given its primary structure All of these primary structures will twist, forming a secondary structure Beta pleated sheet – fold Alpha helix – twist i.e. straight hair (beta pleated sheet) and curly hair (alpha helix) tertiary structure – 3D structure; contains active sites quaternary structure if we have more than one peptide chain linking together, we get a complex protein i.e. hemoglobin (4 peptide chain) types of proteins: structural/fibrous – give form to body parts o i.e. collagen regulatory – regulate processes generally as a hormone contractile – proteins in muscle that can contract o i.e. myosin, actin immunological – help prevent infection or disease transport – carrier molecules o i.e. hemoglobin carries oxygen catalytic – enzymes enzymes protein that functions as a biological catalyst binds to certain and only certain substrates o has specific substrates catalyst speeds up a reaction without being used in a reaction denaturation loss of a protein’s 3D shape due to high temperature or changes in pH o each enzyme has an optimal temp and pH o structural proteins tend not to denature but functional proteins do o nucleic acids largest molecules in the body comprise of nucleotides bound using phosphate bonds DNA Found in the nucleus of a cell Contains codon segments called genes Sugar – deoxyribose Double stranded molecule A, G, C , & D RNA DNA stays in nucleus and RNA is the messenger that takes the info to the body Single stranded molecule Different nucleotide formation o Adenosine triphosphate “ATP” Adenine which is bound to a phosphate in which 2 additional phosphates are attached Currency of energy in our body
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