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Anatomy & Physiology Biochemistry Notes

by: Courtney Luber

Anatomy & Physiology Biochemistry Notes 80197 - BIOL 2220 - 001

Marketplace > Clemson University > Biology > 80197 - BIOL 2220 - 001 > Anatomy Physiology Biochemistry Notes
Courtney Luber

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About this Document

These notes cover the biochemistry slideshow that we discussed on Tuesday, 08/30
Human Anatomy and Physiology I
John R Cummings
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courtney Luber on Thursday September 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 80197 - BIOL 2220 - 001 at Clemson University taught by John R Cummings in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology I in Biology at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 09/01/16
08/30/16 Biochemistry  Definition – chemical composition and reactions of living matter  Biocompounds o Inorganic – no carbon  Water, salts, acids, bases  They dissociate; do not form electrolytes o Organic – do contain carbon  Potential to form covalent bonds  Do not dissociate; give us electrolytes  Important inorganic compounds o Water  60-80% of human body is water; most abundant  Properties:  High heat capacity – resistant to changes in temperature (we have a homeostatic body temp)  High heat of vaporization – water requires a lot of heat to turn it from a liquid to a gas o Has cooling powers when vaporizes  Universal solvent – a lot of things can dissolve in water o Ionic molecules & polar compounds can dissolve in water o Ability to transport these ions o For anything to biologically active, it has to be in a solution o *solution – a solute dissolved in a solvent  Hydrolysis/condensation – all reactions in the body are catabolic or anabolic; anything is either a decomposition or synthesis reaction o Involves water most of the time o Dehyrdation – take water away o Hydrolysis – add water  Cushion – water is a cushion between the bones and joints; cerebral spinal fluid that protects us from head trauma o Salts  Substances that dissociate to form cations and anions (electrolytes); salts create electrolytes when they dissociate  Movement of charged particles gives us electrical energy  Kidneys regulating and maintaining salt balance o Acids  Substances that dissociate and increase hydrogen ion concentration  Hydrogen ion will have a positive charge (more protons)  Acids are proton donors  Can also create electrical currents through dissociation  Increase hydrogen ion concentration of a solution o Bases  Reduces hydrogen ion concentration  proton accepter  pH – measurement of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution o expressed on a scale from 0-14 o 0-6 acidic o 7 neutral o 8-14 basic o Measurement of hydrogen ion concentrations in a solution in moles/liters o Is homeostatic – maintained by neutralization and buffering o Different organs have different optimal pH’s but have to be within homeostatic pH o Neutralization – the addition of an acid and a base  When we combine, we get water and salt (neutral solution) o Buffering – a process in which the addition of small amounts of acid or base do not result in pH change  Resists pH changes by accepting or liberating hydrogen ions  We constantly flood our bodies with acidic or basic food (i.e. coca-cola)  Organic compounds o Carbohydrates  Sugars and starches  Cell is made up of between 1-2% carbohydrates  Main function is to be a source of energy  Major player in energy production is glucose  most easily enters glycolysis  We can get energy from any form of biocompounds, but the most common source is glucose  Monosaccharides –  the smallest forms of sugar; individual units; simple sugars; taste sweet; can be absorbed immediately along the wall of the digestive tract; can be immediately used to provide energy when in bloodstream  Named based on the number of carbons they contain  5 carbons pent-  6 carbons hex-  Always have a ratio of carbon to hydrogen to oxygen (1-2-1)  Disaccharides  2 sugars o Glucose + glucose = maltose o Galactose + glucose = lactose o Glucose + fructose = sucrose  Have to be digested before absorbed  Polysaccharides  Many sugars  Long chains  Also have to be broken down to release monosaccharides  Don’t taste sweet  Not water soluble  Stored differently in plants and animals o Animals store them as glycogen o Plants store them as starch  Humans then build own monosaccharides o Lipids  Can exist as liquids or solids at room temp  Solid – fat  Liquid – oil  Not water soluble, though they can be dissolved by other solvents such as other lipids  Neutral fats  “triglyceride”  Consists of glycerol + 3 fatty acids  Nonpolar  Function primarily as energy storage molecules  Function in insulation  Kidneys are packed in fat because they are close to the skin  They also protect organs  Classes o Saturated – any triglyceride in which the fatty acids do not contain any double bonds between the carbons  Predominantly animal fats – meat  Solid at room temperature  Consumption increases cholesterol levels in our body o Unsaturated – contains a single double bond in one of the fatty acids  Oils at room temp  Predominantly plant based  Do not cause any increase in cholesterol; no effect o Polyunsaturated – 2 or more double bonds  Plant based  Oil at room temp  Reduce cholesterol o Trans fats -  Oil that has been solidified in a lab by flooding it with hydrogen ions  Take unsaturated fat and make them saturated  Chips have more flavor when saturated fats are used  Grossly increase cholesterol and heart disease o Omega 3 fatty acids  Omega – far edge of the fatty acid chain  Has a double bond at the third carbon from the tail  Shown to reduce cholesterol  Predominantly fish oils o Omega 6 fatty acids  “ “  But double bond on sixth carbon  Phospholipids  Triglyceride but one of the fatty acids has been switched with a phosphate  Polar head and nonpolar tail  Double layer of phospholipids (plasma membrane; phospholipid bilayer)  Amphipathic molecule – molecule with polar and nonpolar parts  Steroids  Made from 4 interlocking hydrocarbon rings  i.e. testosterone, progesterone  steroids are part of endocrine system regulation  fat based & fat soluble steroid hormones)  Eicosanoids  local signaling molecules  produced in one part of the body and affect that place  modified triglyceride o Proteins  10-30% of the mass of the cell  Made up of amino acids  Linked together, they’re called polypeptides  Peptide bonds link proteins together  Nitrogen contained in protein  Proteins in human body made of 20 amino acids  Some are only available from animals  Roles: structural, functional  Primary structure – linear sequence of all of the amino acids that make up the protein given its primary structure  All of these primary structures will twist, forming a secondary structure  Beta pleated sheet – fold  Alpha helix – twist  i.e. straight hair (beta pleated sheet) and curly hair (alpha helix)  tertiary structure – 3D structure; contains active sites  quaternary structure  if we have more than one peptide chain linking together, we get a complex protein  i.e. hemoglobin (4 peptide chain)  types of proteins:  structural/fibrous – give form to body parts o i.e. collagen  regulatory – regulate processes generally as a hormone  contractile – proteins in muscle that can contract o i.e. myosin, actin  immunological – help prevent infection or disease  transport – carrier molecules o i.e. hemoglobin carries oxygen  catalytic – enzymes  enzymes  protein that functions as a biological catalyst  binds to certain and only certain substrates o has specific substrates  catalyst speeds up a reaction without being used in a reaction  denaturation  loss of a protein’s 3D shape due to high temperature or changes in pH o each enzyme has an optimal temp and pH o structural proteins tend not to denature but functional proteins do o nucleic acids  largest molecules in the body  comprise of nucleotides  bound using phosphate bonds  DNA  Found in the nucleus of a cell  Contains codon segments called genes  Sugar – deoxyribose  Double stranded molecule  A, G, C , & D  RNA  DNA stays in nucleus and RNA is the messenger that takes the info to the body  Single stranded molecule  Different nucleotide formation o Adenosine triphosphate  “ATP”  Adenine which is bound to a phosphate in which 2 additional phosphates are attached  Currency of energy in our body


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