New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Psyc 221, Week 1 Notes

by: Kajal Kaushal

Psyc 221, Week 1 Notes Psyc221

Kajal Kaushal


Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes cover first week's topics
Social Psychology
Dylan Selterman
Class Notes
social, Psychology
25 ?




Popular in Social Psychology

Popular in Psychology (PSYC)

This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kajal Kaushal on Thursday September 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc221 at University of Maryland - College Park taught by Dylan Selterman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Maryland - College Park.


Reviews for Psyc 221, Week 1 Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/01/16
Social Psych Notes                                                                                               February 1, 2016 Theories & Perspectives: Theories can help guide explanations Phenomenon is the what, Theory is the why Situations often powerfully effect the way an individual acts.  They matter more than personality.  Time periods, geography and language – Cultural Context also play a large role in social  behavior. WEIRD Societies Western Education Industrialized Rich Democratic Learning Theory Conditioning: Pairing Stimulus ­> response is generated Reinforcement (rewards/punishments) Modeling/Mimicking Evolutionary Psychology: Adaptive behavior/ selection pressures Solves problems faced by ancestors Look for: Cross­cultural similarities Innate tendencies Similarities to other species Biological Psychology: Social neuroscience (fMRI, EEG Methods) Brain activation, neuro­chemicals Genes & Heredity Physiology (heart rate, ect.) Personality Psychology Individual differences Person X Situation = Behavior Overlapping fields Positive Psychology Emotions (Joy, Pride) Behaviors (Cooperation, Love) Outcomes (Life Satisfaction)  Research Designs Correlational Measure variables to see if they’re associated (graffiti & crime) Used when impossible/unethical to manipulate variables Does not necessarily indicate causation Correlations range from ­1 to 0 to +1 Zero means NO CORRELATION Negative means opposing relationship (sometimes a strong association) Experiments Allow us to conclude causality Random assignment is the key Not attributable to pre­existing variables However, artificial lab settings Interval vs. external validity in social psych February 3, 2016 Information Processing Conscious/ Cognitive: Slow, Reasoning, Effortful/Taxing, Deliberate/Controllable, Flexible Automatic/Implicit: Fast, Evaluations based on gut instinct, Effortless, Unintentional, Stable/Stubborn Automaticity Most psychological processes occur automatically ~5% of behaviors governed by conscious control ~Supported by different theoretical perspectives Priming “Spreading Activation” Priming activates related concepts/ideas in the mind’s network Automatic, uncontrollable Examples & Exercises: Embedded words and anagrams Reading comprehension, word scramble, word pair memory test Aging & Frailty words ­> Walking Slower Impolite Words ­> Interruption Rates Memory Facilitation Embodied Cognition – Automaticity Mind­Body connection Sensitive to physical/environmental cues Sitting in a hard chair ­> Tough negotiation Sales tactic Wobbly Chair ­> Uncertainty  Heavy Objects ­> Weighty Decisions Hot/Cold Beverage ­> 1  Impressions, and Generosity Perspective Taking Primes Perception of traits & actual performance Stereotypes of cheerleaders; professors “Enclothed Cognition” Stereotypical primes within clothing & cognitive performance Implications for Marketing People associate brands with personality and goal pursuits Apple = Nonconformity, Innovation, & Creativity IBM = Traditional, Responsible Apple Logo ­> Higher creativity tests and creativity motivation Mirroring The “Chameleon Effect” People subconsciously mimic others’ movements More mimicking = More liking Physical coordination & Synchronization Commuting direction in couples Singing and dancing in groups Language st 1  person plural pronouns (“we” & “us”) ­> intimacy; overlapping self Practical applications: Impression management Rapport building (professional or romantic) Relationship enhancement Team/group strengthening Schema/Schemas/Schemata Cognitive structures representing ideas in the mind Schema: Mind :: Neuron: Brain Types of Schemata Concept Ex: ‘Computers’ ‘College’ ‘Relationships’ Specific Person Group (Stereotypes) Self­Concept Events Procedure/ Sequence Scripts The “Cognitive Miser” Perspective Leads to: Reluctance to question what we think we know, or think deeply Faster judgments/conclusions based on small amounts of information Heuristics Errors/ Biases Heuristics Expensive = Better Evaluating products, services Taste & Performance Placebo Effect Halo Effect Form overall impression based on limited info Beautiful = Good Physical Attractiveness ­> Good Qualities Objectively, no difference Treated leniently after misbehavior Theft, aggression Systematic Errors and Biases Gambler’s Fallacy Chance events will “even out” over time February 8, 2016 Systematic Errors and Biases Hot Hand Fallacy Basketball – no evidence that shot made will lead to successive shots made Exception – Set Shots (& Bowling) “Curse of 27” The belief that reckless musicians are more likely to die at the age of 27 Fear of flying, lightning, sharks, ebola Statistics don’t matter Compelling anecdotes, imagery, exposure are more likely to be effective Debunking Myths 43% believes (wrongly) that the flu vaccine can give you flu After shown info from CDC, intentions to get vaccinated decline Confirmation Bias Confirming events are salient and well­remembered Prophetic dreams, Disconfirming events are “non­events” and therefore less  salient, less memorable. Gravitate more towards things that stick out in our memory Motivated Reasoning “The mind as a lawyer” analogy: our minds are more like lawyers rather than computers. When weighing evidence, seek preferred conclusions to confirm existing  schemata & worldwide. Self­Serving Bias Intelligence or personality test feedback Feedback on unhealthy behaviors Negative medical diagnoses Derogate procedures List recent mitigating factors Downplay significance “Naïve Realism” The tendecy of any individual person to percieve the world accurately  without bias relative to others. People think they have the most accurate view of the world. The first impressions people form are incredbily powerful and rarely ever  change. Hannah Study Information about one’s background can influence judegment Behavioral Confirmation Male­Female phone conversation study Random attractive/unattractive photos Blind observers coded interactions Men’s expectations ­> rating & treatment Men’s expectations ­> women’s behavior in response AKA Self­Fulfillling Prophesy In the classroom: Teachers’ expectations ­> Students’ performance Social Comparison Compare to other people, esp. in ambiguous situations Goal to make the self look good Attractiveness, intelligence, creativity, ect. Most couples say they have above average relationship Most professors say they are above average Role of ambiguity in defining traits Leadership = 1) Confidence in directing others, 2) Trailblazing, 3)  Communication Skills Positive Psychology Perspective Positive illusions are beneficial (Mental health, happiness, well liked, successful) The downside: Unaware of incompetence; lack self – insight Unaware of success Accuracy is high for others’ behavior; inflated for own behavior Cooperation vs. selfish in games: Before game: 64% will cooperate 84% claim they will cooperate After game: 61% actually cooperate Attributions How we assign causes for behavior, events, consequences Motivation for understanding, building schemas 2 Dimensions: Locus Stability Fundamental Attribution Error/Correspondance Bias Internal attributions for others’ behavior Foreground vs. environment Belief in a just world, blaming the victim (karma) The Self, Personality Identity Self­concepts/Self­Schema Crucial for psychological health Continuity over time (security, confidence) Social Presentation, bonding Distinctiveness Similarly to others (“typical”) feedback: Increase in negative emotion Motivation to distinguish from others Self­descriptions Uncommon experiences Distinctive groups Reduced physical proximity to others “Need for Uniqueness”  Less concern for social acceptance Less self­consious Less social anxiety & shyness Consumer Effects Customized goods, unusual shopping venues, popular products Self­Awareness Self focus can be taxing, potentionally distressing Discrepancies between different “selves” Mirror studies; Self focus More honest, authenticity More consistent, hard work Reducing self­focus and self­awareness: Alcohol and other drugs Binge eating Goal pursuits Self­serving Bias A “zoo” of different biases Self­handicapping Basking in reflected glory Downward comparison Overestimating contributions to groups Self­reference effect; Endowment effect False consensus (opinions, values) False uniqueness (abilities, characteristics) Self­Verification Motivation to maintain self­schema Contrast to self­enhancement Despite conflicting information Self­esteem Appraisal of self as good/bad; self­worth Postitive connotations in Western society Associated with “clear understanding” of the self (self­concept clarity) Sociometer theory: when people are doing well, they feel good about themselves Physical appearance (“Halo effect”) Larger than social, academic, or athletic competence What else contributes to self­esteem? Feeback from others, character evaluations Family, school, work, peers Periods of change/transition Self: Emotional well­being, psychopathology Social Behavior: Confidence in group work vs. excuses for failure Eye contact Social influence/conformity Double­edged sword Inflated self­esteem & narcissism A self­centered and self­concerned approach toward others Anti­social behaviors Such as aggression anf predjudice Costly pursuit of self­esteem Self­enhancement motives; artifically­inflated sense of self­worth Reverse causality Threats to self esteem decrease motivation to improve, learn, master a task In a healthy way: Domains of competance (breadth & depth) Achievement/accomplishments Capitalization Coping strategies Change/transition “Generation Me” Increased narcissism in today’s youth? 1976­2006 meta­analysis General vs. specific measures Small increases in entitlements & self­sufficiency Small decreases in vainity, superiority


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Kyle Maynard Purdue

"When you're taking detailed notes and trying to help everyone else out in the class, it really helps you learn and understand the I made $280 on my first study guide!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.