Psyc 221, Week 1 Notes
Psyc 221, Week 1 Notes Psyc221
Popular in Social Psychology
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kajal Kaushal on Thursday September 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc221 at University of Maryland - College Park taught by Dylan Selterman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Maryland - College Park.
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What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 09/01/16
Social Psych Notes February 1, 2016 Theories & Perspectives: Theories can help guide explanations Phenomenon is the what, Theory is the why Situations often powerfully effect the way an individual acts. They matter more than personality. Time periods, geography and language – Cultural Context also play a large role in social behavior. WEIRD Societies Western Education Industrialized Rich Democratic Learning Theory Conditioning: Pairing Stimulus > response is generated Reinforcement (rewards/punishments) Modeling/Mimicking Evolutionary Psychology: Adaptive behavior/ selection pressures Solves problems faced by ancestors Look for: Crosscultural similarities Innate tendencies Similarities to other species Biological Psychology: Social neuroscience (fMRI, EEG Methods) Brain activation, neurochemicals Genes & Heredity Physiology (heart rate, ect.) Personality Psychology Individual differences Person X Situation = Behavior Overlapping fields Positive Psychology Emotions (Joy, Pride) Behaviors (Cooperation, Love) Outcomes (Life Satisfaction) Research Designs Correlational Measure variables to see if they’re associated (graffiti & crime) Used when impossible/unethical to manipulate variables Does not necessarily indicate causation Correlations range from 1 to 0 to +1 Zero means NO CORRELATION Negative means opposing relationship (sometimes a strong association) Experiments Allow us to conclude causality Random assignment is the key Not attributable to preexisting variables However, artificial lab settings Interval vs. external validity in social psych February 3, 2016 Information Processing Conscious/ Cognitive: Slow, Reasoning, Effortful/Taxing, Deliberate/Controllable, Flexible Automatic/Implicit: Fast, Evaluations based on gut instinct, Effortless, Unintentional, Stable/Stubborn Automaticity Most psychological processes occur automatically ~5% of behaviors governed by conscious control ~Supported by different theoretical perspectives Priming “Spreading Activation” Priming activates related concepts/ideas in the mind’s network Automatic, uncontrollable Examples & Exercises: Embedded words and anagrams Reading comprehension, word scramble, word pair memory test Aging & Frailty words > Walking Slower Impolite Words > Interruption Rates Memory Facilitation Embodied Cognition – Automaticity MindBody connection Sensitive to physical/environmental cues Sitting in a hard chair > Tough negotiation Sales tactic Wobbly Chair > Uncertainty Heavy Objects > Weighty Decisions Hot/Cold Beverage > 1 Impressions, and Generosity Perspective Taking Primes Perception of traits & actual performance Stereotypes of cheerleaders; professors “Enclothed Cognition” Stereotypical primes within clothing & cognitive performance Implications for Marketing People associate brands with personality and goal pursuits Apple = Nonconformity, Innovation, & Creativity IBM = Traditional, Responsible Apple Logo > Higher creativity tests and creativity motivation Mirroring The “Chameleon Effect” People subconsciously mimic others’ movements More mimicking = More liking Physical coordination & Synchronization Commuting direction in couples Singing and dancing in groups Language st 1 person plural pronouns (“we” & “us”) > intimacy; overlapping self Practical applications: Impression management Rapport building (professional or romantic) Relationship enhancement Team/group strengthening Schema/Schemas/Schemata Cognitive structures representing ideas in the mind Schema: Mind :: Neuron: Brain Types of Schemata Concept Ex: ‘Computers’ ‘College’ ‘Relationships’ Specific Person Group (Stereotypes) SelfConcept Events Procedure/ Sequence Scripts The “Cognitive Miser” Perspective Leads to: Reluctance to question what we think we know, or think deeply Faster judgments/conclusions based on small amounts of information Heuristics Errors/ Biases Heuristics Expensive = Better Evaluating products, services Taste & Performance Placebo Effect Halo Effect Form overall impression based on limited info Beautiful = Good Physical Attractiveness > Good Qualities Objectively, no difference Treated leniently after misbehavior Theft, aggression Systematic Errors and Biases Gambler’s Fallacy Chance events will “even out” over time February 8, 2016 Systematic Errors and Biases Hot Hand Fallacy Basketball – no evidence that shot made will lead to successive shots made Exception – Set Shots (& Bowling) “Curse of 27” The belief that reckless musicians are more likely to die at the age of 27 Fear of flying, lightning, sharks, ebola Statistics don’t matter Compelling anecdotes, imagery, exposure are more likely to be effective Debunking Myths 43% believes (wrongly) that the flu vaccine can give you flu After shown info from CDC, intentions to get vaccinated decline Confirmation Bias Confirming events are salient and wellremembered Prophetic dreams, Disconfirming events are “nonevents” and therefore less salient, less memorable. Gravitate more towards things that stick out in our memory Motivated Reasoning “The mind as a lawyer” analogy: our minds are more like lawyers rather than computers. When weighing evidence, seek preferred conclusions to confirm existing schemata & worldwide. SelfServing Bias Intelligence or personality test feedback Feedback on unhealthy behaviors Negative medical diagnoses Derogate procedures List recent mitigating factors Downplay significance “Naïve Realism” The tendecy of any individual person to percieve the world accurately without bias relative to others. People think they have the most accurate view of the world. The first impressions people form are incredbily powerful and rarely ever change. Hannah Study Information about one’s background can influence judegment Behavioral Confirmation MaleFemale phone conversation study Random attractive/unattractive photos Blind observers coded interactions Men’s expectations > rating & treatment Men’s expectations > women’s behavior in response AKA SelfFulfillling Prophesy In the classroom: Teachers’ expectations > Students’ performance Social Comparison Compare to other people, esp. in ambiguous situations Goal to make the self look good Attractiveness, intelligence, creativity, ect. Most couples say they have above average relationship Most professors say they are above average Role of ambiguity in defining traits Leadership = 1) Confidence in directing others, 2) Trailblazing, 3) Communication Skills Positive Psychology Perspective Positive illusions are beneficial (Mental health, happiness, well liked, successful) The downside: Unaware of incompetence; lack self – insight Unaware of success Accuracy is high for others’ behavior; inflated for own behavior Cooperation vs. selfish in games: Before game: 64% will cooperate 84% claim they will cooperate After game: 61% actually cooperate Attributions How we assign causes for behavior, events, consequences Motivation for understanding, building schemas 2 Dimensions: Locus Stability Fundamental Attribution Error/Correspondance Bias Internal attributions for others’ behavior Foreground vs. environment Belief in a just world, blaming the victim (karma) The Self, Personality Identity Selfconcepts/SelfSchema Crucial for psychological health Continuity over time (security, confidence) Social Presentation, bonding Distinctiveness Similarly to others (“typical”) feedback: Increase in negative emotion Motivation to distinguish from others Selfdescriptions Uncommon experiences Distinctive groups Reduced physical proximity to others “Need for Uniqueness” Less concern for social acceptance Less selfconsious Less social anxiety & shyness Consumer Effects Customized goods, unusual shopping venues, popular products SelfAwareness Self focus can be taxing, potentionally distressing Discrepancies between different “selves” Mirror studies; Self focus More honest, authenticity More consistent, hard work Reducing selffocus and selfawareness: Alcohol and other drugs Binge eating Goal pursuits Selfserving Bias A “zoo” of different biases Selfhandicapping Basking in reflected glory Downward comparison Overestimating contributions to groups Selfreference effect; Endowment effect False consensus (opinions, values) False uniqueness (abilities, characteristics) SelfVerification Motivation to maintain selfschema Contrast to selfenhancement Despite conflicting information Selfesteem Appraisal of self as good/bad; selfworth Postitive connotations in Western society Associated with “clear understanding” of the self (selfconcept clarity) Sociometer theory: when people are doing well, they feel good about themselves Physical appearance (“Halo effect”) Larger than social, academic, or athletic competence What else contributes to selfesteem? Feeback from others, character evaluations Family, school, work, peers Periods of change/transition Self: Emotional wellbeing, psychopathology Social Behavior: Confidence in group work vs. excuses for failure Eye contact Social influence/conformity Doubleedged sword Inflated selfesteem & narcissism A selfcentered and selfconcerned approach toward others Antisocial behaviors Such as aggression anf predjudice Costly pursuit of selfesteem Selfenhancement motives; artificallyinflated sense of selfworth Reverse causality Threats to self esteem decrease motivation to improve, learn, master a task In a healthy way: Domains of competance (breadth & depth) Achievement/accomplishments Capitalization Coping strategies Change/transition “Generation Me” Increased narcissism in today’s youth? 19762006 metaanalysis General vs. specific measures Small increases in entitlements & selfsufficiency Small decreases in vainity, superiority