Week 1 Textbook Notes
Week 1 Textbook Notes PSY 151
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by merlec16 on Thursday September 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 151 at Wake Forest University taught by Ashley L. Heffner in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views.
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Date Created: 09/01/16
PSY 151 - Chapter 1: Introduction Notes p. 2-17 Psychology as Science How can cowardice and heroism and cruelty and kindness coexist within a species? What kinds of questions ought to be studies, how they should be studies, and what one is actually doing when one “does” psychology? Psychology is indeed a science Virtually any human behavior or mental activity can be a topic for scientific study in psychology Psychology is the Scientific Study of Mind and Behavior Psychology- is the scientific study of mind and behavior Scientific- specific sorts of methods-grounded in modern science- have been employed to assure accuracy and reduce bias Mind- mental processes and events – encompassing consciousness, emotion, motivation, and cognition Behavior- all potentially observable or measureable activities of a living organism Psychological science- the modern scientific study of psychology, originating in the late 19 century o Biological, sociocultural, and person factors Variable topics and points of view characterize psychology Psychology is Distinct from Psychiatry Psychiatry- a branch of medicine concerned with diagnosing and treating mental health problems o Their knowledge of psychiatry is often restricted to the causes and treatment of psychological disorders o Knowledgeable in the use of biologically based treatments such as pharmacotherapy Psychology Today is Distinguished in Three Ways Employment setting/ workplace environment o Academic psychology- basic research and teaching for the purpose of advancing knowledge of psychology o Applied psychology- use of psychological principles and methods to address the problems of the individual, society, or industry o Also useful in police work, social work. The business world, education, arts and entertainment Fields of study – particular topics psychologists are trained to study o Developmental psychologists- various ways humans change in the life span o Cognitive psychologists- study thinking, learning… o Cognition- human mental processes concerned with information and knowledge Thinking, memory, language, intelligence, and perception of the world through senses Clinical and counseling psychologists Perspective- kinds of questions within an area of study Developmental psychologists- ways people change psychologically over time o Biobehavioral perspective- emphasis on importance of genetic, hormonal and nervous system the key to understanding human behavior lies in understanding the human brain and body o Attachment perspective- emphasis on the importance of early parent-infant relationships Cognitive perspective- view human mind as extraordinarily complex information-processing device Evolutionary perspective- human brain and mind evolved in very specific ways to help our ancestors solve he sorts of problems they experienced recurrently over evolutionary time Positive psychology- use psychological science to study human strengths and positive attributes Psychodynamic perspective- human beings are often strongly affected by unconscious conflicts and motivations Sociocultural perspective- emphasize the critical role played by society and culture in shaping human psychology Psychology Did Not Exist in the Ancient World Ancient peoples tend to assume that their thoughts and feelings did not originate in their own minds but were truly spiritual in origin Buddha believed human suffering was determined by each persons own mental activity The Noble Eightfold Path Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT)- joins techniques of cognitive therapy with the very meditation techniques and ideas about the mind first described by Buddha Big questions of psychology Prescientific psychology in the Age of Reason Rene Descartes (1596-1650)- work greatly influenced philosophical and scientific ideas of the Age of Reason in the next century Rationalism- the philosophical movement founded by Descartes which held that beliefs should be formed through the use of reason, rather than relying upon personal experience of the pronouncements of authorities “I think, therefore, I exist” Dualism- the view that the mind and matter belong in separate categories and are constructed of different material th British Empiricism- 17 century philosophical movement which held that the mind had no innate content- personal experience was responsible for the development of all thoughts, beliefs, and knowledge Empirical- knowledge obtained through experience Wilhelm Wundt: The ‘Father” of Psychological Science The modern scientific study of psychology originated in 1879 in his lab in Germany Edward Titchener o Structuralism- a defunct psychological school, believers thought that experience could be broken down into separate sensory component of “structures” o Used introspection as a tool to investigate the structures of experience William James: The Mind Has Specific Functions Father of American psychological science Interested in studying the functions of the mind Functionalism- psychological school which held that the mind could only be understood by referring to the purposes for which it was shaped through evolution Sigmund Freud: Psychoanalysis and the Unconscious Psychoanalysis- theory and psychotherapeutic technique founded by Freud and based upon the notion that human beings are driven by unconscious conflicts and desires originating primarily in experiences of early childhood Watson and Skinner: Only Behavior Can Be Studied Scientifically Behaviorism- early movement held that only behavior- not internal mental states- could be studied scientifically o Behaviorists believed that behavior was shaped primarily or entirely by experience Useless to create scientific theories based on ideas like these Radical behaviorists (Skinner)- wished to discover the laws by which organisms acquired new behaviors Carl Rogers and the Humanists: Free Will and Personal Growth Humanistic psychology- reaction against psychoanalysis and behaviorism o Human behavior was not determined by unconscious drives of by learning, but that people had free will to choose o Emphasized the intrinsic worth and dignity of the human being
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