Psyc 221 Week 2 Notes
Psyc 221 Week 2 Notes Psyc221
Popular in Social Psychology
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 25 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kajal Kaushal on Thursday September 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc221 at University of Maryland - College Park taught by Dylan Selterman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Maryland - College Park.
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Date Created: 09/01/16
March 21 , 2016 Conformity Social norms; ingroup pressure Normative Social Influence Desire to fit in Informative Social Influence Desire to be “correct” Asch Line Study People were asked to find the lineclosest in length Participants changed answers to mimic the group. Autokinetic Effect 3 people judge light movement, conform gradually th Bring in 4 , quickly conforms to group norm Bring 5 , 6 person – entirely new group Transgenerational norms Positive Psychology Perspective Health & wellbeing Safety Littering, recycling Variables that influence Conformity Motivation to belong, liking, or commitment to a group Social support for resisting Anonymity – blind responses Embedded words (priming) Conforming: adhere, agree, comply Rebellious: challenge, confront, Size of the group Larger > more conformity Anonymity is the exception Status within the group Curvilinear association Personality Selfesteem, anxiety, vague selfconcept Altruism is puzzling Definitions are varying Does “pure” altruism exist? Evolutionary Psychology – Altruism Survival of the fittest Kin selection Genetic Advancement Potential for mating Reciprocal altruism Symbiotic mutualism Expect benefit in return Esteem/status enhancement Gain power/respect/resources If you had to choose… Close Kin >> Distant Young strangers >> Old strangers Healthy >> Sick/diseased Wealthy >> Poor This all flips during everday ordinary situations Less weight to kinship, help strangers Very old/young >> Intermediate age Sick >> Healthy Theoretical Models Social Norms Reciprocity Social Responsibility vs. Social Justice Fairness = Equity vs. Fairness = Proportionality How people treat each other such that the outcomes are the same Reap what you sow Belief in a just world Blaming a vicitm “Because” More likely to help as opposed to when there is no justification Social Exchange Theory Costbenefit analysis Time, effort, resources, danger (blood) Ego depletion; cognitive resources Cognitive load, effort > reduced altruism Rush hour, ect. Being “Sweet” Candy! (Sweet foods) Embodied social cognition Personality reports Agreeableness Volunteerism Eating candy – situational Agreeable & volunteerism Morals & Ethics Mixed evidence for religion Correlational vs. experimental studies Religious ppl donate more to charities, volunteer more time/effort However, parables from religious texts (“the Good Samaritian”) do not increase helping “in a hurry” outweighs trait religiosity Other evidence: “Anonymous dictator” design Wordscramble prime; religious themes (e.g., “prophet”) > more donation Secular justice prime (e.g. “jury”) had same effect New neighbors; religious leader or God wants you to help out… “Religion” increases altruism toward ingroup “God” increases altruism toward outgroup The “Sunday Effect” Charitable contributions 300% higher amongst religious Christians on Sundays only (relative to non religious) Power of religious situations over religious people Infants & Altruism Spontaneous acts of kindness Independent of socialization; culture EmpathyAltruism Instinct Feel moved by the suffering of others; inspired by acts of kindness Elevation or awe Neuro “reward” for cooperation Social support & forgiving Better for supportgiver Personal fulfillment, development, growth Empathy as personality A psychological “mirror” Traitlike concern for others’ wellbeing Equity/fairness beliefs Empathy Approach (feelgood altruism) or avoidance (negative affect) goals Generalized affect Emotional salience vs. factual information & distance Bystander Effect “Urban Trance” Perceptual errors? Fear of looking foolish? Kitty Genovese Diffusion of responsibility Experimental evidence # of people and likelihood of helping Response time Studying Aggression Definition: Hurting another person with intention to hurt. Difficult to operationalize Difficult to study ethically Recent Supreme Court decision on video games Emotional Arousal Anger & Frustration Aversive/Disgusting stimuli Blocking a goal Misattribution of arousal The myth of “catharsis” But…small to moderate association Emotion regulation increases with age Beliefs about emotionaction link Selffulfillinf prophesy Aggressive actions can occur without emotional arousal. Situational Forces Bad economy Alcohol (even as a placebo) Temperature Climate Change & Conflict 1 SD increase in temperature > 2.5 % increase in persontoperson violence, 11% increase in group violence. Domestic violence Food shortage, droughts > instability Envrionmental Factors Wounded pride Insults, provocation 75% of college students directly insulted someone in public Cultures of “honor” e.g. Japan, Italy, Saudi Arabia, Southern U.S. Norms for retaliation after humiliation & disgrace Situational Forces Social norms dictate aggression In traffic Killing outgroup members during wartime “Weapons effect” Displaced aggression Domestic violence Physiology & Personality Low empathy; psychopathy Narcissism/ High selfesteem Physiology Genes, testosterone, serotonin Military, police, athletes Raw quantity vs. change Sex & gender Evolutionary Perspective Dominance > Leadership Power, resources, influence Intra – sexual competition Mate guarding Sexual Selection Women prefer dominant men (Also preder generous men) February 29, 2016 Attitudes Attitude = Schema about a topic Beliefs (cognitive; schematic) Ex: dogs are loyal, school is challenging Evaluation (Emotional/affective) Ex: “I love rock music” Behavioral Expression Impression – Management Social bonding & attraction People use their attitudes affect others and also their attitudes are effected by others Attitude Formation Learning Theory Classical & operant conditioning Mere Exposure Repeated/prolonged exposure to stimulus Person, idea, neurtal/inanimate object Assumes initial neutral attitudes Attitudes – Behavior link? Attitudes and behaviors can be inconsistent Ex: about 30% surveyed in U.S. say that sex before marriage is wrong By age 20, > 80% report premartial sex At age 45, it’s even higher Stability vs. Change Time and fluctuation based on experience Ex: voting 2 months & 2 days before election Relevance to behavior Ex: Church attendance & belief in God Should attitudes predict behavior? Reasoned Action Model Attitude > Behavioral control > Behavior Ex: Exercise routines Individual attitude + Social Norm Ex: Drug Usage in adolescence AttitudeBehavior link? Attitude strength Extremity of emotion; degree of certainty vs. ambivalence Ex: Political attidues, cigarettes/alcohol Stronger attitudes are more consistent Stronger link to behavior Increasing information/evidence Mere exposure = Increasing info Direct personal experience & selfinterest Ex: Nancy Reagan & stem cell research Ex: Drinking age raised in Michigan Attitude Change Equilibrium vs. Learning/Conditioning Cognitive Dissonance – Inconsistency between attitude & behavior ( or a 2 attitude) Two cognitions: 1. Believe “X 2. Publicily state “not X” or Publicly behaved Studies in Cognitive Dissonance Original Festernger (1950s) Study Pegs & Screws “How enjoyable was the task?” Fake the next participant $20 or $1 condition Persuasion – The Source Similarity & Familiarity Experiences,demographics, mannerisms, appearance/clothing Likability, charisma Cooperative Behavior Agreeableness No conflict of interest Or, against own interest Authority figure/expert The Audience Personality Need for cognition – factbased arguments Selfconsciousness/selfmonitoring Brand names, styles, celebrities Motivation Personal relevance Distraction & fatigue “dilution effect”; automatic processing When people are distracted and tired, they can be more easily persuaded because they aren’t paying attention to all the details. Age Young adults are more open, older adults are more resistant Intelligence Moderate level leads to more easily persuaded Restisting Attitude Change Source derogation Inoculation Rehearse counterarguments Situational Factors: Forewarning of intent to persuade Forewarning of position of the message Compliance Strategies Conditioning – Association with a positive mood/affect Flattery Negative Affect – Curvilinear effects Too much can backfire Antismoking messages Negative stereotypes > greater resistance to quit smoking Norm of reciprocity Consistency Hare Krishna donations Free samples Door in the face Make a request larger than what you want “That’s not all” Scarcity “Hard to get” > valuable heuristic Deadline technique Reactance Norm of reciprocity Commitment to a course of action Again, consistency Foot in the door “Watch my stuff” Low balling Compliance Strategies Commitment to a course of action Initiation rituals & hazing Group belonging Effort justification How do we influence people? Compliance – Requests and Persuasion Obedience – Authoritative Force Conformity – Mimic the Group Obedience Types of influential power Information (gossip) & reputation Stigmatization Conditioning/learning Ostracism (group behvaior) Extremely powerful, become overwhelmed with negative emotions Authority Expertise Charisma or refernt power Legitimate power (police, teachers) Coercion Violence or threat of violence Last resort, not commonly used Milgram Study 2/3rds obeyed through highest shock level (450 volts); ½ fully obeyed Obedience declined in downtown Conneticut office (not affliated with Yale) Role of proximity Zimbardo’s code Replication Stop at 150 volts, 1 protest, and extrapolate Modeling and/or social support No sex/gender differences No education/SES differences Personality Empathy Less Likely Agreeablenes More Likely Conscientiousness More Likely Implications Good vs Evil Power of the situation (external attribution) Environmental context; socialization “Replicating Milgram” February 17, 2016 Benefits of Adversity Setbacks=opportunites for development Rising to challenges – self concept growth Strengthened social ties Optimists benefit from tragedy/trauma more so than others Different than baseline recovery Personality: 3 Levels Level 1: Trait (e.g. introversion) Level 2: Adaptation to situations & environments Bidirectional influence with Level 1 Level 3: Life story, narrative, identity “Integrates a reconstructed past, percieved present, and anticipated future into a coherent and vitalizing life myth.” Overcoming adversity contributes to life narrative Stories of struggle, redemtion Personality The “personsituation debate” Behavior (B) = Personality (P) X Situation (S) Personality (P) = Stability in behavior over time How much of our behavior is determined by personality? ~ .40 correlation across situations or time ~ 1520% of variability in behavior “BIG 5” Traits (OCEAN) Openness (to experience) Inventive, Creative, Original, Imaginative Openness > cognitive strength Speed of information processing Memory & recall; vocabulary Visual/Spatial abilities Conscientiousness Thorough, neat, systematic, diligent Extroversion Socially active, gregarious, outgoing Agreeableness Kind, polite, pleasant, cooperative Neuroticism (Emotional Stability) Reactive, easily disturbed, stressed “Types” don’t really exist e.g. MyersBriggs Traits are largely independent of each other Very stable across college years Except neuroticism, which declines somewhat Moderate stability acrossthe lifespan Extroversion & Neuroticism .40.50 correlation over 45 years Esp. stable in men Agreeableness & Conscientiousness Smallmoderate increases Openness Mixed results Personality & Genetics Strong genetic influence Twin and adoption studies (neutral 3 party ratings): 4050% genetic similarity 1025% shared environment 2530% unshared (unique) environment Genes ≠ Destiny Wealth/income > environment matters more Household & neighborhood Moving families into good neighborhoods increases chances that children would escape poverty. “Room with a cue” Conscientiousness: Clean, organized, matched contents Openness: Variety of books/CDs/Magazines Extroversion: Decorative/stylish, noisy Agreeableness: Strong odor for disagreeable people Appearance Conscientiousness > formal wear Neuroticism > dark clothes Extroversion > smiling, loud voice Agreeableness > soft features Speech Extroverison > talk about social events, positive emotions Openness > fewer 1 person pronouns (e.g. “I” or “Me”) Opposite trends for neuroticism 1 person pronounds are mark of selffocus Higher in women, lowstatus ppl, & depressed/suicidal ppl Music Quite central to personality Music acts as social badges Most frequent topic amongst people getting to know each other Personality & value judgements Motivation SelfControl; Willpower The self as an agent, resource Ego depletion: lack of resources that the self needs Delayed gratification: can effectively regulate themselves to delay postitive things into the future. Waiting a little bit will better the outcome. Willpower: Trait conscientiousness responsibility Eating poorly, low exercise, unclean, poor academic performance, infidelity Willpower: Situational constraints Food depletion impairs decisionmaking Judicial rulings: Sentences are much harsher if the judges are depleted\ Two Types of Motivation Intrinsic Motivationinternal factors Curiosity, challenge Inherent value in the activity Extrinsic MotivationExternal Factors Rewards (money, fame) Punishments (deadlines, competition, grades) Intrinsic Motivation: increases enthusiasm, effort, enjoyment, and success Extrinsic Motivation Conditioning Effort & performance dependent on the reward. Inceentive Removing the rewaard decreases motivation Overjustification Effect Too many motivating factors Contrast to behavior (increase rewards) Two competing motivations are disruptive Selfenhancement vs. selfassessment of goals Selfish vs. communal goals Children who expect rewards for an activity are less likely to engage in the same activity later than those who were intrinsically motivated. SelfDetermination “Casual Agency” “Empowerment” Control over behavior through resolve/effort, not external variables Very important for wellbeing Psychological “food” Increase happiness & health Contains Three Elements Competence: selfefficacy Autonomy: free from unwanted control Identity: Uniqueness Relatedness: social ties/relationships Need to belong Love and Work Competing needs? Secure, intimate relationships Increase job/career satisfaction, fulfillment Decrease negative spillover Decrease fear of failure These needs facilitate each other How does it occur? Encouragement, support, increase confidence Dependency Paradox Measured feelings of dependency. Those who are more dependent on the others are more likely to be able to function better independently. Label: Secure/Autonomous Mindset – Implicit Theories Entity – fixed abilities/traits Seek environments that are wellsuited for existing abilities Level 1 > Level 2 Incrementalchange, development Seek new/challenging environments Level 2 > Level 1 Interventionteach that intelligence, skill, willpower can increase with practive & effort Expectation > Reality Implications SDT: People are NOT inherently lazy Contrast to behaviorism/conditioning Social Physical needs intertwined Contrast to “hierarchy” of needs Reactance Asserting freedom, autonomy, even rebellion Forbidden fruit Cigarettes; Mrated video games; extradyadic sex Education policy; workplace psychology Value the learning process, mastery, discovery, growth Bonus $ Grades? MeaningMaking Meaning connects 2 phenomena Even if physically separate/distinct Similar to attributions Meaning involves appraisal Value, worth, significance Stability vs. Change Meaning generates order Allows for growth, adaptation Levels of Meaning Lower Level: Concrete, Immediate, specifics & details Paying attention in class Upper Level: Abstract, longer timespan, connections between actions Getting an education Awareness for high vs low level goals – changes depending on situation Problemsolving > downshift Thriving > upshift Upshift > life satisfaction Four pillars –Meaning in Life Purpose: Connection between present actions & future states of being Goals & fulfillments Values: Justification for action; “right” & “wrong” Important for emotion regulation (lowers anxiety, guilt, regret, moral distress) Efficacy (Generativity): Taking action, making a difference Connection between values and competence Selfworth (Esteem through individual, dyads, or groups) Implications for Society Generativity & SelfWorth Many different domains, potential Purpose & Values Much harder to conceptualize Disconnection with fulfillment, meaning The evolving nature of economic work; Living “happily ever after” The values gap Lack of consensus Flow Vital engagement Total immersion; being “in the zone” Effortless movement, focus, attention Esp. with sports, art, music, dancing Joy in the Journey Process of completing goals > most fulfillment; not endstate achievement Selfdetermination Contributes to Level3 life narrative Multiple Meanings Buffer against problems/life stress Less pressure on any one meaning Allows for fluidity in selfconcept Intrapersonal Bidirectionality: in the person, there will be causal influences back and forth. Happiness ≠ Meaning E.g. Procreation Meaningfulness is a necessary but not sufficient condition for happiness. Evolutionary Perspective Not all events or behaviors are meaningful, BUT… Humans forge meaning & take benefits Finding Meaning Writing/expressing painful (or emotional) experiences and events Improves academic performance Improves immune system functioning School shootings; 9/11 families Coping with loss/trauma HIVPositive men > Less decline in TCells Writing Exercises Content Analysis of narratives (LIWC) Creating a narrative with meaning Causal words: “because”, “reason”, “effect” Insight words: “understand”, “realize”, “appreciate” Finding Meaning Suffering > Deep questions “why did this happen?” Making sense & finding meaning are coping strategies > health
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