Music 121, Week 3 Lecture Notes
Music 121, Week 3 Lecture Notes Music 121
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jamie Bynum on Thursday September 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Music 121 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Bailey in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Listening in Music at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 09/01/16
Lecture: Early Music September 1, 2016 Professor: Dr. Bailey *Early music encompasses the time of the beginning of music records to the 1600s Antiquity (Pre-400 c.e.) • Chorus in Greek drama - Ode = Poem sung with the playing of a lyre • Psalms of Jewish and Christian traditions • Instruments found in Egypt, Mesopotamia, Greece, and other ancient civilization; extremely rare to ﬁnd an ancient instrument in good condition due to excessive damages • Greeks believed music had divine origin from their Gods - Music reﬂected the order of the universe (harmonia) - Believed music inﬂuenced ethos (moral and ethical character) Medieval Era (400 c.e. to 1400 c.e.) • Church music was notated • Began monophonically in plainchant (Gregorian Chant) -Represented unity with God -Ternary form (ABA) represented the Holy Trinity -Composers did not sign music; done to honor God, not self -Did not have what we know today as tempo or rhythm • Secular (non-religious) music survived in oral transmission by troubadours (upper-class) and minstrels (lower-class) -Little secular music survived by 1100 c.e. • 900—Polyphony began -Began as two voices in parallel motion on different pitches -Not exciting to our modern ears; very basic -Flourished in complexity at the cathedral of Notre Dame with Leonin and Perotin -France was the music center of Europe in the Medieval Ages -Guillaume de Machaut *Leading composer of Ars nova (1300-1400) *Composed sacred as well as secular music Renaissance (1400 c.e. to 1600 c.e.) • French word for “rebirth” • Rebirth of education, curiosity, etc. • Italy became the music center of Europe during this time • Music became more complex and plentiful with publishing -Polyphonic; more dissonant than previous eras • Sacred and secular music were on equal footing • Music and poetry linked together with word painting - “Heaven”: high range - “Running”: fast rhythm - “Weeping”: descending notes • Madrigal (poem set to music) -Designed to be performed at home -Sold in books -Popular in Italy, then in England by the end of the era -Famous composer of madrigals was Jacques Arcadelt -Change from Latin to modern languages • Polyphonic in sacred music: 1. Complex motets by Josquin *Hard to understand (imitation, independent motion, etc.) *Listeners not reverent; wanted to be entertained 2. “Balanced Polyphony” by Palestrina *Easier to understand Instrumental Music • -Often played existing vocal music -Consorts: chamber ensemble *A broken consort had a mixture of different families of instruments • Dance music comprised most original works - Dancing was highly important to Renaissance culture - Lute and/or keyboard training expected of upper classes - Two types of dancing: *Pavane (formal; rigid) *Galliard (upbeat)
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