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BMB 211, Chapter 1, Week 1

by: Sharp Notes

BMB 211, Chapter 1, Week 1 BMB 211

Sharp Notes
Penn State
GPA 3.7
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These notes include what was gone over in lecture, including clicker questions. Only material mentioned in lecture will be on exams. As we proceed book notes will be added in for better understandi...
Elementary Biochemistry
Heather Giebink
Class Notes
Biology, biochemistry, Chemistry




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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sharp Notes on Thursday September 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BMB 211 at Pennsylvania State University taught by Heather Giebink in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Elementary Biochemistry in Biochemistry at Pennsylvania State University.

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Date Created: 09/01/16
Biochemistry Basics 9/1/16 4:48 PM Properties of Life: • Cells • Complex/Organized/Order • Energy Use • Reproduction • Dynamic/Growth and Development • Respond to environment • Evolve Living organisms are composed of both inorganic and organic molecules. • Inorganic molecules o Water (50-95% of cell content) o Ions (1% of cell content) § Sodium (Na+) § Potassium (K+) § Magnesium (Mg2+) § Calcium (Ca2+) • Organic Molecules: o 6 major elements § Carbon § Hydrogen § Oxygen § Nitrogen § Phosphorus § Sulfur Organic molecules are defined as any compound that contains a significant amount of carbon. • These examples are hydrocarbons, the simplest type of organic molecule. • Changes chemical properties Attaching other atoms or groups of atoms to hydrocarbons results in new organic molecules with different chemical properties. Ethane Ethanol Functional Groups: Table has the important functional groups in biomolecules *Missing from the table is Ether R-O-R The four classes of small biomolecules (monomers) and their role in biological processes are the focus of this class. Example: A pentapeptide is made of 5 amino acids • Penta-having 5 • Peptide- compound consisting of 2 or more amino acids linked in a chain Polypeptides fold into unique 3D structures, resulting in a (hopefully) functional protein Glycogen is an important polysaccharide (polymer) for animals. • It is made up of the monosaccharide, glucose. • Examples of this are liver and muscle cells In Unit 4 we will cover fatty acids and lipids. • Lipids are very diverse and are not water soluble. Nucleotides, which make up Nucleic Acids, will be in Unit 5. • DNA is a polymer of nucleotides, and is also called a nucleic acid. The sum total of all the reactions in a living organism is metabolism. There are four categories of functions of metabolism. • The acquisition and utilization of energy • Synthesis of molecules needed for cell structure and function • Growth and development • Removal of waste products Reactions are organized into pathways • An initial reactant molecule is modified in a step-by-step sequence into a unique product molecule. • Example: Glycolysis o Glucose to pyruvate in 10 steps • Reactions are regulated so resources are conserved and energy use is optimized. There are three classes of biochemical pathways. A. Metabolic Pathways • Anabolic – large molecules are made (synthesized) from smaller molecules • Catabolic – large molecules are broken down (degraded) into smaller molecules B. Energy Transfer Pathways capture and transform energy into forms that can drive biomolecular processes. C. Signal transduction pathways allow cells to receive and respond to signals from their surroundings. 5 commonly encountered reactions: Nuleophilic Substitution Reaction • “A” is the attacking species, a nucleophile • “B” is an electrophile • “X” is the leaving group o A common example is hydrolysis Elimination Reaction • Common elimination products are H2O, ammonia (NH3), amines (RNH2), and alcohols (ROH) • Dehydration is an example of an elimination reaction • Addition Reaction • Two molecules combine to form a single product. • Hydration is one of the most common addition reactions • Isomerization Reaction • Atoms or groups undergo intramolecular shifts o i.e. Something moves within the molecule o Oxidation- Reduction Reactions: • Transfer of electrons from a donor (reducing agent) to an electron acceptor (oxidizing agent). o When reducing agents donate their electrons, they become oxidized. o When oxidizing agents accept electrons, they become reduced. • This two processes always occur at the same time. Rules to determine which biomolecules have gained or lost electrons • Oxidation occurs if a carbon atom gains oxygen or loses hydrogen. • Reduction occurs if a carbon atom loses oxygen of gains hydrogen. Do you understand? Let’s see! 1. How many total functional groups does glucose contain? A. 0 B.1 C. 2 D. 5 E.6 2. What organelle is responsible for synthesizing polypeptides? • A. ER • B. Golgi • C. Lysosome • D. Ribosome 3. In hydrolysis which molecule is the nucleophile? • A. Red Oxygen • B. Black Oxygen • C. Blue Oxygen 1. E • Glucose is made up of 5 hydroxyl groups(-OH) and one Ether (C-O-C) 2. D • The Ribosome 3. A • The Red Oxygen 9/1/16 4:48 PM 9/1/16 4:48 PM


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