Chapter 2 Notes
Chapter 2 Notes MGMT 371 002
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MGMT 371 002
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This 1 page Class Notes was uploaded by Richard Martin on Thursday September 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MGMT 371 002 at University of South Carolina taught by Patrick J. Demouy in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Principles of Management in Business Administration at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 09/01/16
Chapter 2 Wednesday, August 24, 2016 3:13 PM • Social forces: aspects of a culture that guide and influence relationships among people • Political forces: influence of political and legal institutions on people and organizations • Economic forces: the availability, production, and distribution of resources in a society • Social business: using social media for interacting with and facilitating communicationand collaborationamong employees,customers,and other stakeholders • Fredrick Winslow Taylor: ○ Father of scientific management ○ Improved efficiency and labor productivity through scientific methods ○ Proposedthat workers"could be retooledlike machines" • Henry Gantt: developedGantt chart to measure planned and completed work along each stage of production • Gilbreths: pioneered time and motionstudies to promoteefficiency • Max Webber: bureaucratic management,bureaucratic control ○ Division of labor: definitive authority and responsibility of different areas ○ Unity of command: report to one and only one direct supervisor ○ Managers also have to follow rules and procedures ○ Management is separate from ownership of organization ○ Administrative acts and decisions recorded in writing ○ Personnel should be promotedand hired based on technical qualifications • Classical Perspective: ○ Scientific management ○ Bureaucratic organizations ○ Administrative principles • Henri Fayol: identified functions of management- planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating and controlling ○ Unity of command: report to one and only one direct supervisor ○ Division of work: manager work and technical work are separated ○ Unity of direction: similar activities should be grouped together ○ Scalar chain: chain of authority from top to bottom including every employee • Humanistic Perspective: ○ Mary Parker Follett and Chester Barnard ○ Empowerment:facilitating instead of controlling ○ Recognized informal organization ○ Acceptance theory of authority: people have free will and can choose whether to follow management orders ○ Human relations: employeesperform better when managers treat them positively • Theory X: ○ People have inherent dislike of work and will avoid it if possible ○ Must be coerced, controlled, or directed to get them to put forth effort ○ Prefers to be directed, wishes to avoid responsibility, little ambition and wants security • Theory Y: ○ Expenditure of physical and mental effort in work is natural, doesn't inherently dislike work ○ Exercise self-direction and self-control to achieve objectives ○ Learns not only to accept but to seek responsibility ○ Capacity to exercise imagination, ingenuity and creativity in solution of problems is widely distributed in population ○ Under modern industrial life, intellectual potentialities of average person are only partially utilized • Organizational development:field that uses behavioral sciences to improveoverall organization • Operations management:focuses on physical production of goods and services • IT: focuses on technology and software to aid managers • Subsystems: parts of the system that are all interconnected • Synergy: the whole is greater than the sum of its parts • Contingency View: ○ Every situation is unique, no universal management theory ○ Managers must determine what method will work ○ Managers must identify key contingencies for the current situation ○ Organizational structure should depend upon industry and other variables • Quality Management: ○ Employee involvement ○ Focus on the customer ○ Benchmarking: comparing yourself to someonewho does it well/better ○ Continuous improvement • Supply chain management:managing the relationships suppliers and purchasers to get goods to customers • Engagement: people are emotionallyinvolved in their jobs and are satisfied with their work to the organization • Customerrelationship management:CRM, technology used to build relationship with customers • Outsourcing: contracting functions or activities to other organizations to cut costs Notes Page 1
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