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genetics week 1

by: UNT_Scientist

genetics week 1 Biol 3451

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About this Document

This covers all of chapter 1 and the beginning of chapter 2
Robert Curliss Benjamin
Class Notes
Genetics, UNT, University, Of, North, texas, benjamin




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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by UNT_Scientist on Thursday September 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 3451 at University of North Texas taught by Robert Curliss Benjamin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Genetics in Biology at University of North Texas.


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Date Created: 09/01/16
Genetics UNT  Week 1 Concepts of genetics tenth edition   Introduction to genetics  o 1.1 Genetics has a rich and interesting history   Few significant ideas were put forward to explain heredity during  prehistoric times   1600­ 1850   The dawn of modern biology   William Harvey   Theory of exigences is   Structures such as body organs are  not initially present in the early  embryo and are former later   Schleiden and Schwann the cell theory (1830)   Cell theory   All life is made up of cells   Term cell   Comes from the idea that it looks  like prison cells  o Charles Darwin's travels on the HMS Beagle provided him geological,  geographical, and biological  observations that helped formulate  his theory of evolution  Collects stuff while the ship takes him places   Some of the key observations come from fossils o Darwin published his ideas on  evolutionary theory in The Origin of  Species (1859)  Alfred Russel Wallace is the reason it got published   Made the same observations but never traveled to  the same place o Existing species arose from other  ancestral species by descent with  modification o Natural selection was the driving  force for evolutionary change o Independently proposed by Alfred  Russel Wallace o 1.2 genetics progressed from Mendel to DNA in less than a century  Mendel published his findings on the  transmission of genetic information from  parents to offspring o Is published around civil war but  people forget about it   Mendel worked with peas and used  quantitative data to support his ideas o Meddle counts and gets the correct  ratio  o All the experiments had been done  before but because he took the time  to count he got the credit   In mitosis, chromosomes are copied and  distributed so that the two resulting  daughter cells each receive a diploid set  In meiosis, resulting cells (gametes)  receive only half the number of  chromosomes and are haploid  According to the chromosomal theory of  inheritance, inherited traits are controlled by genes residing on chromosomes  The genes are transmitted through gametes  This maintains genetic continuity from  generation to generation o It's why you look like your parents   Family resemblance   Mutations produce alleles of a gene o They are the source of genetic  variation  Without variation you can't improve   The set of alleles for a given trait is called  the genotype  The expression of the genotype produces  an observable trait or phenotype  DNA, not protein, is the carrier of genetic  information o Research of Avery, MacLeod and  McCarty: 1944   Given credit that DNA is the genetic material  o 1.3 discovery of the double helix launches the era of  molecular genetics   What is DNA  o DNA is an antiparallel, double­ stranded helix o Its monomer is a nucleotide  consisting of a sugar (deoxyribose)  bonded to a phosphate and also  bonded to the bases adenine,  cytosine, guanine, and thymine o These nucleotides form A–T and G– C complementary base pairing  across the helix (Figure 1.6)   What is RNA  o RNA is similar to DNA, except that:  it is usually single­stranded  it has uracil (U) in place of thymine (T)  the sugar in RNA nucleotides is ribose instead of  deoxyribose  DNA is transcribed to RNA, which is  translated into protein (Figure 1.7) o  This is known as the central dogma of  genetics  The genetic code consists of triplet  nucleotides present in mRNA  Each triplet encodes for insertion of a  specific amino acid into a growing protein  chain o Takes 3 things to make 1 amino acid  Once a protein is made, its action or  location in a cell plays a role in producing a  phenotype o Some proteins aren't translated till  they get to where they need to be  o Remember our cells knew that  buying locally was smarter before  we did  o 1.4 Development of recombinant DNA technology began  the era of cloning   In the 1970s researchers discovered  restriction enzymes in bacteria that cut viral  DNA at specific sites o What else happened in the 70’s  o HIV discovery  Restriction enzymes have allowed the  advent of recombinant DNA and cloning  (Figure 1.10) o o 1.5 the impact of biotechnology is continually expanding   Biotechnology has been used for the  genetic modification of crop plants for: o increased herbicide, insect, and viral resistance  It takes years to get rid of weeds so we use herbicide  o nutritional enhancement  Some genetically altered traits in crop plants are shown in Table 1.1 o o We can only support 20% of the  population on non gmo and free  range chickens  o When you strengthen privacy laws  you strengthen the right to abortions   Gene therapy and genetic testing are  important parts of medicine o We achieved the goal of the human  genome of sequencing the human  genome o 2nd goal reduced the cost of  changing the human genome testing to less than $1000   23 and me got sued because they scared a bunch of  people by providing a lot of risk factors and freaking them  out  o Gene therapy  Increased survival rate of individuals   Only kills cells that. It is programmed to kill   Originally done with recombination DNA therapy   The molecular basis for hundreds of genetic disorders is known (Figure 1.13) o o 1.6 genomics, proteomics, and bioinformatics are new and  expanding fields   Genomics  o analyzes genome sequences to  study the structure, function, and  evolution of genes and genomes o Has impacted evolution  o What genes you have   Proteomics  o identifies a set of proteins present in  cells under a given set of conditions  and studies their post­translational  modifications, their locations within  cells, and their interactions o How or what you express with your  genes   Bioinformatics  o stores, retrieves, and analyzes data  generated by genomics and  proteomics in vast amounts   All life has a common origin, and genes with similar functions in different organisms are  similar in structure and DNA sequence o 1.7 genetic studies rely on the use of model organisms   Model organisms for genetic study meet  these criteria: o easy to grow o short life cycle o produce many offspring  # genes  o 24382   We still don't have a clue don't believe it   Recombinant DNA technology and the  ability to transfer genes across species  have made it possible to develop models of  human diseases (Table 1.2) o o 1.8 we live in the age of genetics   Mendel set the stage for the study of  genetics  Genetics rapidly developed from Mendel's  peas to the Human Genome Project  Numerous Nobel Prizes have been awarded in the field of genetics  Society is faced with a host of sensitive  genetics­related issues, including prenatal  testing, ownership of genes, and access  to/safety of gene therapy  Chapter 2 o Introduction   In eukaryotes, transmission of genetic  material from one generation of cells to the  next involves mitosis and meiosis  Meiosis leads to production of gametes  Mitosis leads to production of two cells,  each with the same number of  chromosomes as the parent cell o 2.1    Cell Structure Is Closely Tied to Genetic Function  Cell structure is closely tied to genetic  function o There are two main types of cells:  Prokaryotic (bacteria, archaea)  Not focus of this chapter   Eukaryotic (protists, plants, fungi, animals) o All cells share some common  features:  Plasma membrane  DNA  Ribosomes  This is what all cells have and that means the  common ancestor will also have it  o  The cell is surrounded by a plasma  membrane  Plants have a cell wall composed mainly of  cellulose  Bacterial cells have peptidoglycan on their  cell wall  DNA in the nucleus is complexed with an  array of acidic and basic proteins into thin  fibers  During nondivisional phases of the cell  cycle, these fibers are uncoiled and  dispersed into chromatin Chromatin fibers coil and condense to form chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis


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