genetics week 1
genetics week 1 Biol 3451
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by UNT_Scientist on Thursday September 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 3451 at University of North Texas taught by Robert Curliss Benjamin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Genetics in Biology at University of North Texas.
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Date Created: 09/01/16
Genetics UNT Week 1 Concepts of genetics tenth edition Introduction to genetics o 1.1 Genetics has a rich and interesting history Few significant ideas were put forward to explain heredity during prehistoric times 1600 1850 The dawn of modern biology William Harvey Theory of exigences is Structures such as body organs are not initially present in the early embryo and are former later Schleiden and Schwann the cell theory (1830) Cell theory All life is made up of cells Term cell Comes from the idea that it looks like prison cells o Charles Darwin's travels on the HMS Beagle provided him geological, geographical, and biological observations that helped formulate his theory of evolution Collects stuff while the ship takes him places Some of the key observations come from fossils o Darwin published his ideas on evolutionary theory in The Origin of Species (1859) Alfred Russel Wallace is the reason it got published Made the same observations but never traveled to the same place o Existing species arose from other ancestral species by descent with modification o Natural selection was the driving force for evolutionary change o Independently proposed by Alfred Russel Wallace o 1.2 genetics progressed from Mendel to DNA in less than a century Mendel published his findings on the transmission of genetic information from parents to offspring o Is published around civil war but people forget about it Mendel worked with peas and used quantitative data to support his ideas o Meddle counts and gets the correct ratio o All the experiments had been done before but because he took the time to count he got the credit In mitosis, chromosomes are copied and distributed so that the two resulting daughter cells each receive a diploid set In meiosis, resulting cells (gametes) receive only half the number of chromosomes and are haploid According to the chromosomal theory of inheritance, inherited traits are controlled by genes residing on chromosomes The genes are transmitted through gametes This maintains genetic continuity from generation to generation o It's why you look like your parents Family resemblance Mutations produce alleles of a gene o They are the source of genetic variation Without variation you can't improve The set of alleles for a given trait is called the genotype The expression of the genotype produces an observable trait or phenotype DNA, not protein, is the carrier of genetic information o Research of Avery, MacLeod and McCarty: 1944 Given credit that DNA is the genetic material o 1.3 discovery of the double helix launches the era of molecular genetics What is DNA o DNA is an antiparallel, double stranded helix o Its monomer is a nucleotide consisting of a sugar (deoxyribose) bonded to a phosphate and also bonded to the bases adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine o These nucleotides form A–T and G– C complementary base pairing across the helix (Figure 1.6) What is RNA o RNA is similar to DNA, except that: it is usually singlestranded it has uracil (U) in place of thymine (T) the sugar in RNA nucleotides is ribose instead of deoxyribose DNA is transcribed to RNA, which is translated into protein (Figure 1.7) o This is known as the central dogma of genetics The genetic code consists of triplet nucleotides present in mRNA Each triplet encodes for insertion of a specific amino acid into a growing protein chain o Takes 3 things to make 1 amino acid Once a protein is made, its action or location in a cell plays a role in producing a phenotype o Some proteins aren't translated till they get to where they need to be o Remember our cells knew that buying locally was smarter before we did o 1.4 Development of recombinant DNA technology began the era of cloning In the 1970s researchers discovered restriction enzymes in bacteria that cut viral DNA at specific sites o What else happened in the 70’s o HIV discovery Restriction enzymes have allowed the advent of recombinant DNA and cloning (Figure 1.10) o o 1.5 the impact of biotechnology is continually expanding Biotechnology has been used for the genetic modification of crop plants for: o increased herbicide, insect, and viral resistance It takes years to get rid of weeds so we use herbicide o nutritional enhancement Some genetically altered traits in crop plants are shown in Table 1.1 o o We can only support 20% of the population on non gmo and free range chickens o When you strengthen privacy laws you strengthen the right to abortions Gene therapy and genetic testing are important parts of medicine o We achieved the goal of the human genome of sequencing the human genome o 2nd goal reduced the cost of changing the human genome testing to less than $1000 23 and me got sued because they scared a bunch of people by providing a lot of risk factors and freaking them out o Gene therapy Increased survival rate of individuals Only kills cells that. It is programmed to kill Originally done with recombination DNA therapy The molecular basis for hundreds of genetic disorders is known (Figure 1.13) o o 1.6 genomics, proteomics, and bioinformatics are new and expanding fields Genomics o analyzes genome sequences to study the structure, function, and evolution of genes and genomes o Has impacted evolution o What genes you have Proteomics o identifies a set of proteins present in cells under a given set of conditions and studies their posttranslational modifications, their locations within cells, and their interactions o How or what you express with your genes Bioinformatics o stores, retrieves, and analyzes data generated by genomics and proteomics in vast amounts All life has a common origin, and genes with similar functions in different organisms are similar in structure and DNA sequence o 1.7 genetic studies rely on the use of model organisms Model organisms for genetic study meet these criteria: o easy to grow o short life cycle o produce many offspring # genes o 24382 We still don't have a clue don't believe it Recombinant DNA technology and the ability to transfer genes across species have made it possible to develop models of human diseases (Table 1.2) o o 1.8 we live in the age of genetics Mendel set the stage for the study of genetics Genetics rapidly developed from Mendel's peas to the Human Genome Project Numerous Nobel Prizes have been awarded in the field of genetics Society is faced with a host of sensitive geneticsrelated issues, including prenatal testing, ownership of genes, and access to/safety of gene therapy Chapter 2 o Introduction In eukaryotes, transmission of genetic material from one generation of cells to the next involves mitosis and meiosis Meiosis leads to production of gametes Mitosis leads to production of two cells, each with the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell o 2.1 Cell Structure Is Closely Tied to Genetic Function Cell structure is closely tied to genetic function o There are two main types of cells: Prokaryotic (bacteria, archaea) Not focus of this chapter Eukaryotic (protists, plants, fungi, animals) o All cells share some common features: Plasma membrane DNA Ribosomes This is what all cells have and that means the common ancestor will also have it o The cell is surrounded by a plasma membrane Plants have a cell wall composed mainly of cellulose Bacterial cells have peptidoglycan on their cell wall DNA in the nucleus is complexed with an array of acidic and basic proteins into thin fibers During nondivisional phases of the cell cycle, these fibers are uncoiled and dispersed into chromatin Chromatin fibers coil and condense to form chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis
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