New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here


by: Braley Hogge


Braley Hogge
View Full Document for 0 Karma

View Full Document


Unlock These Notes for FREE

Enter your email below and we will instantly email you these Notes for Biology & Society

(Limited time offer)

Unlock Notes

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Unlock FREE Class Notes

Enter your email below to receive Biology & Society notes

Everyone needs better class notes. Enter your email and we will send you notes for this class for free.

Unlock FREE notes

About this Document

These notes cover what will be on the first exam.
Biology & Society
Emily Clark
Class Notes
Biology, Science




Popular in Biology & Society

Popular in Science

This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Braley Hogge on Thursday September 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bsc 103 at University of Southern Mississippi taught by Emily Clark in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Biology & Society in Science at University of Southern Mississippi.


Reviews for BSC 103 WEEK ONE NOTES


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/01/16
Wednesday, August 31, 2016 2:17 PM -Science -focuses on the natural world -aims to produce increasingly accurate explanations of how the natural world works, what its components are, and how it got to be this way. *AIMS TO SOLVE PROBLMES -relies on ideas that are testable -tests (experiments) produce data which support or refute the idea. -"it takes a village" aka it cannot be done with only one individual -Science begets more science -researchers adhere to a code How do we Science? ASK A QUESTION* | READ UP | Construct a hypothesis that is testable and falsifiable | Preform experiments to test hypothesis /\ / \ / \ Data support Hypothesis Results don’t support Hypothesis | | Write Paper Start Over* ** In science nothing is ever definitively proven Scientific Theory: consists of a LARGE body of evidence. -How do we design a study?  Conclusions from a study are only as good as the study design. + Large sample sizes + controlled experimental conditions + directly testing the effect of treatment on a particular response. *Humans are tricky -- results are often correlative. CORRELATION DOES NOT MEAN CAUSATION Causation:  Humans : randomized clinical trial  Logistically challenging  Ethically questionable Biology= The study of Life Alive: 1 does it grow? 2 can it reproduce? 3 does it maintain homeostasis (maintain relatively stable) 4 Does it sense and respond to stimuli? 5 Does it obtain and use energy? ALL LIVING THINGS HAVE 5 FUNCTIONAL TRAITS IN COMMON (with some exceptions)  Mules: Donkey + Horse = Sterile Offspring  Viruses: Not made of cells. Hijack host cellular machinery to reproduce.  If they don’t have the 5 traits then ask what its made of.  We are all made of matter: anything that takes up space and has mass.  Matter is made up of elements: substance that cant be chemically broken down any further.  Atom: Smallest *** Subatomic particles give elements their identity  Positively charged protons  Negatively charged electrons  Neutrally charged neutrons and virtually weightless *Carbon has 6 of each  4th most common element  2nd mot common element in the human body Oxygen (65%) Carbon (18.5%) Hydrogen (9.5%) Nitrogen (3.3%) Phosphorus and Sulfur (2%) Carbon  4 bonding sites  Binds covalently (shares) (stronger bond) Atoms linked by covalent bond: Molecule **Organic Molecules: they have an interconnected carbon backbone and 1> C-H bond ALL LIFE IS MADE UP OF ORGANIC MOLECULES Most are made by living thing. We look for organic molecules when looking for new life on planets. 4 Types of Organic Molecules make up living things 1 Carbohydrates 2 Proteins 3 Lipids 4 Nucleic Acids These are all Macromolecule: LARGE organic molecules that make up every molecule in your body. Macromolecules consist of chemical subunits called monomers. Monomer + Monomer = Polymer Monomer Polymer Carbohydr Monosacchari Polysacchari ate de de Protein Amino Acid Some Protein Nucleic Nucleotide DNA Acid Lipids  Not made up of replicating monomers  Made up of different hydrophobic molecules (could create boundaries) Cell: Basic structural unit of life (cell theory- cells come from other cells)  Water based interior that is separated from a chemically distinct water-based exterior.  C ell Membrane maintains separation (great barrier) It is Semipermeable: some things can pass through. **How? Osmosis: diffusion of water through the cell membrane. Water will always move toward the side with the higher solute concentration. Simple diffusion: movement of small uncharged molecules across membrane from area of greater concentration to less concentration.  Example: Oxygen: moves directly through Transport Proteins: Embedded in cell membrane.  Needed for molecules that are too large to pass through the membrane (hydrophilic) Facilitated Diffusion: Molecules moved down the gradient (no energy needed) AKA passive transport (glucose water) Active transport: Against concentration gradient (needs input of chemical energy) Cells have membranes, but are not all alike Cells:  Prokaryotic Cells: no organelles  Eukaryotic Cells: Organelles (DNA in NUCLEUS) **Viruses are NOT cells** Remember these organelles and their functions: Mitochondria Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Golgi Apparatus Lysosomes Nucleus Cytoskeleton ANTIBIOTICS *Penicillin interferes with peptidoglycan synthesis *Gram-positive/Gram negative **Viruses are NOT cells** Consequences of using antibiotics when you have a virus: 1 Wipes out good bacteria in your body 2 Creates an environment ripe for the evolution of antibiotic resistance. Food, the ultimate building block of life. 1 What are the macronutrients and micronutrients provided by food? 2 What are essential nutrients? 3 What are enzymes, and how do they function? Consequence of not eating or not eating enough: Malnutrition: a medical condition resulting from the lack of essential nutrients in the diet. Its not always, but very often associated with starvation Number one killer of children around the world (3.5 mil/year) 1 in 8 people go to bed hungry every night Most deaths due to malnutrition occur in sub-Saharan Africa. Why? Poverty endemic, with people relying on subsistence farming: means that they are trying to grow enough food for themselves and their families. Many of these countries have wet and dry seasons so its difficult to grow food all year round. Climate isn't the only reason people go hungry. Armed conflict another major factor. You control food, you control people. Deliberate starvation of people: war crime. Lack of food- malnutrition- illness and death why? Food contains nutrients. Nutrients: the chemical building blocks our bodies need to live, grow, and repair themselves. Includes water, organic molecules, and ions. Animals cannot synthesize these components on our own. We must EAT them. Nutrients also provides us with energy needed to power essential life activities. Food contains nutrients- What kind? Macronutrients: nutrients that organisms must ingest in large quantities to stay healthy. (carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids) Animal products contain more protein per gram than carbohydrate. Most plant products contain more carbs than proteins. Eat a varied diet. Macronutrients provide our cells with building blocks Cannot be used directly from diet Must be broken down into smaller units Use subunits as building blocks or energy. Process is digestion.^^ Macronutrients: proteins Broken down into amino acids Macronutrients: Carbohydrates Broken down into simple sugars Used to build cell surface markers Macronutrients: fats Broken down into fatty acids and glycerol Used to build molecules that form cell membranes Food provides nutrients Sometimes, if we lack in one nutrient, our bodies can make do and synthesize it from what is available. This not true for all nutrients Essential nutrients are those that must be obtained through diet Metabolism: the sum of all the chemical reactions occurring in the body. Catabolic reactions: break down larger structures into smaller ones (bond breaking) Anabolic reactions: build new structures from smaller subunits (bond building) These reactions require the assistance of helper molecules called enzymes- proteins that speed up rate of chemical rxns Substrate: molecule to which an enzyme binds and on which it acts. Anabolic reaction: enzymes combine small molecules to make more complex ones. Catalyze chemical reactions. Lower the activation energy. Micronutrients include vitamins and minerals, both of which are needed in small amounts to maintain health. Minerals: inorganic elements required by organisms for normal growth reproduction and tissue maintenance Ex: calcium, iron, potassium, zinc Vitamins: organic molecules required in small amounts for normal growth, reproduction, and something else. Minerals act as cofactors Inorganic micronutrients needed to activate an enzyme Zinc, copper, iron Vitamins act as coenzymes Small organic molecules required to active enzymes.


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

0 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.