Physio Chem 150 Notes Week Two
Physio Chem 150 Notes Week Two Chem 150
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brianna S. on Thursday September 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 150 at Xavier University taught by Dr. Stroud in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Physiological Chemistry in Chemistry at Xavier University.
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Date Created: 09/01/16
Physiological Chemistry 150 Lecture: Week Two 08/29-09/2 2016 Classification of Matter Matter can be divided into 4 different categories: o Mixtures o Pure Substances o Elements o Compounds In order to convert matter from one classification to another, a physical or chemical change must occur o Mixtures and pure substances can only be broken by a physical change o Elements and compounds can only be broken by a chemical change Mixtures Two or more substances physically mixed Examples: Kool-Aid, air, salt water, salad and dressing They can be classified as: o Homogenous (appearing in uniform throughout) or Examples: lotion, sugar water, chocolate pudding o Heterogeneous (lacking uniformity) The composition varies from one part to another The different parts are visible Examples: hot fudge sundae, birthday cake, peach pie Pure Substances: Elements One of the fundamental substances from which all things are constructed Cannot be broken down into smaller substances the simplest form Atom: smallest particle of an element Examples: Calcium (Ca), Hydrogen (H), Oxygen (O), Sodium (Na), etc. * There are seven elements which exist, when pure, not as single atoms, but as homonuclear, diatomic molecules o Hydrogen (H )2 o Oxygen (O )2 o Nitrogen (N 2 o Chlorine (Cl ) 2 o Bromine (Br )2 o Iodine (I 2 o Fluorine (F 2 Compounds Contain two or more elements in a definite ratio Examples: water (H O2, sugar water (C H 12)22s11t (NaCl) o Subscripts: tell how many atoms are in the compound formula and tell the mole ratio Molecules are the smallest characteristic part of most compounds (group of atoms bound together) Elements and compounds = substances Accumulative Mini Quiz ***Answer with pure substance, mixture, element, and compound— also state whether the mixtures are homogenous or heterogeneous, as well as, label the diatomic elements ***More than one answer is needed for some questions 1) Shampoo 2) Nitrogen 3) Hydrogen peroxide 4) Plain Greek yogurt 5) Helium 6) H 2 7) Chalk 8) Blueberry bagel 9) Aluminum foil Answers: 1) Mixture-homogenous 2) Element, pure substance, diatomic 3) Compound 4) Mixture-homogenous 5) Element, pure substance 6) Compound 7) Pure substance 8) Mixture-heterogeneous 9) Pure substance Energy Kinetic and Potential What makes objects move and stop Defined as the ability “to do work” Kinetic Energy The energy of motion Examples: swimming, working out, writing a paper Potential Energy The energy stored for a later use Examples: chemical bonds in food, a rollercoaster sitting at the top of the hill, sleeping Heat The energy associated with the movement of particles the faster the particles move, the greater the heat or thermal substance of matter The most common form of energy Measured in joules, kilojoules, calories, kilocalories and Calories o 1 calorie = 4.18 joules (J) the amount of energy needed to 1gram of water to raise the temperature by 1 degrees Celsius o 1 Kilocalorie = 1000 calories o 1 Calorie = 1 kilocalorie associated with food o 1 Kilojoule (kJ)= 1000 joules Temperature Measures how hot or cold an object is compared to another Indicates the flow of heat from a higher temp substance to a low temp substance Measured with a thermometer o Normal body temp: 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit (37 degrees Celsius) o Water freezing point: 32 degrees Fahrenheit (0 degrees Celsius) o Water boiling point: 100 degrees Celsius (373 Kelvin) Celsius = (Fahrenheit – 32)/ 1.8 Fahrenheit = 1.8 x Celsius + 32 Kelvin = 273 + Celsius
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