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BIO 199 Week 1 Notes

by: Tiffany Matyja

BIO 199 Week 1 Notes BIO 199

Marketplace > University of Tampa > BIO > BIO 199 > BIO 199 Week 1 Notes
Tiffany Matyja
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About this Document

These are the notes from this week's lecture
General Biology II
Huber, Daniel
Class Notes
Biology, evolution




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tiffany Matyja on Thursday September 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 199 at University of Tampa taught by Huber, Daniel in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see General Biology II in BIO at University of Tampa.


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Date Created: 09/01/16
Thursday, September 1, 2016 Chapter 21: The Evidence for Evolution General Biology II - Darwin published On the Origin of Species on November 24, 1959 The work wrote was revolutionary because it forces people to rethink everything • that religion, especially Christianity and Judaism, had taught them • Darwin presented evidence that extant organisms are descendants of ancestral species • He proposed natural selection as a mechanism for evolution - The revolutionary part is that he proposed the mechanism. Other scientist had dear eyes on evolution, but Darwin's theory was supported by data - Requirements for evolution: • Pre-existing heritable variation that provides an advantage - Having an advantage means having improved resource acquisition, which provides more energy to the organism, which allows for more reproduction, that results in a greater contribution to the gene pool • Therefore: having an advantageous variation leads to “biasing" of a population’s gene pool towards "your" favorable characteristics • Genetic variation exists regardless of environmental variations - The source of genetic variation is random mutation • Variation is genetically encoded - Historical context of Darwin's ideas • Aristotle - proposed scala naturae, which was the linear progression of life • this doesn’t show how species are related • Linnaeus - binomial system - showed progression of life in a branching tree 1 Thursday, September 1, 2016 • Earth’s Age - The world view of the 1800s was catastrophism • Catastrophism: a series of catastrophic events occurred thus bringing everything into existence. This was dictated by one set of physical principles. In present times (then), a different set of physical principles governed the world • Earth was said to be about 6000 years old - The number 6000 most likely came from the creation story • Uniformitarianism - Lyell (created the field of geology) proposed that change occurs slowly, and the same set of physical principles are constant over time. • Therefore, Earth is way older than 6000 years • He theorized purely in the geological sense • Lamarck - Proposed that species evolved via inheritance of acquired characteristics • Use/disuse of body parts • He thought that if an organism tried really hard to do something, it would evolve to be able to do it. Ex: a giraffe stretching its neck to get food - Darwin • took Lyell’s ideas and applied them to biological change • Observed geographic patterns: organisms in one location to assemble each other more as compared to those from other parts of the world • Organisms in the same ecological niche resemble each other more as compared to those from other ecological niches - ecological niche: the role and organism plays in its environment • Relates an organisms morphology with ecology • Galapagos finches - The finches each had different types of beaks, which differed with respect to their environment and available resources 2 Thursday, September 1, 2016 - “descent with modification” from a common ancestor - Darwin theorized that the birds all went to different islands in which they were able to find resources • The gene pool on each island became biased to the most advantageous species • Darwin helped his fellow Englishmen understand his theory by explaining in terms of artificial selection - Instead of humans selecting for trades, the environment makes the choices Darwin read Malthus’s Essay on the Principle of Population, which explained that • populations increase geometrically (exponentially), while food sources increase mathematically (linearly) - Those organisms which are unable to obtain resources fall prey to “survival of the fittest” • Organisms that are less fit make less of a contribution to the population’s gene pool. Therefore, they don't influence evolution • Therefore, food supply limits population growth - Darwin’s Theory of Evolution • (observation) Members of a population often vary in their inherited traits • (observation) All species can produce more offspring than the environment can support • (inference) Survival (and reproduction) of the fittest • (inference) Accumulation of favorable traits over generations in a population • Darwin shelved his theory for 16 years - Wallace independently developed a similar theory. He shared it with Darwin, and Darwin realizes the importance of sharing both of their findings - Evidence for Evolution • Medium ground finches (Geospiza fortis) - Beak depth changes predictably year after year - drought=big, hard seeds-> deeper beaks 3 Thursday, September 1, 2016 • Drug-resistant bacteria - Bacteria reproduce rapidly, allowing more opportunity for genetic mutation • The population is the smallest unit that can evolve. Therefore, bacteria or capable of rapid evolution • MRSA (methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus) - Bacterial reproduction by inhibiting an enzyme involved in cell wall synthesis - Genetic mutation results in alternative mechanisms for cell wall synthesis, making the bacteria drug-resistant • Anatomical evidence - Homology: similarity resulting from common ancestry • Homologous structures were derived from a common ancestor, but may have evolved for different functions • Can be vestigial (whale pelvis) • Some homologous structures may only be present during development - humans have gill slits in utero • All vertebrates have basic set of developmental instructions • Homology is used to establish evolutionary relationships - Cladograms are based on homologous characteristics - Shared, derived characteristics identified in cladistic analysis are the homologous characteristics that define different groups in evolutionary history - Analogous structures are the result of convergent evolution • Fossil Record - Recreating patterns requires identification of homologous structures - Cetaceans evolved from terrestrial mammals • evidence in limb and skull bones • Molecular evidence - Molecules exhibit homology of chemical structures (DNA, protein) 4 Thursday, September 1, 2016 - differences in molecular structure indicate evolutionary divergence 5


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